Let's evaluate consumer surveillance streams and the rise of surveillance capitalism.
- Cookie: A cookie is a piece of data sent from a website and stored on the users computer by the user's web browser.
- General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): provides data protection and privacy
- Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule (COPPA): provides protection for children under 13 years of age using the internet
- Data and Goliath - Bruce Schneier's book
- The Age of Surveillance Capitalism - book by by Shoshana Zuboff
- Corporate Surveillance in Everyday Life - Cracked Labs
- General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
- Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule ("COPPA")
- Information privacy law - international data protection regulations
- Uber begins background collection of rider location data - Techcrunch
- Designing forms for gender diversity and inclusion - Sabrina Fonseca
- Facebook agrees to overhaul targeted advertising system for job, housing and loan ads after discrimination complaints - The Washington Post
MICHELLE: In Bruce Schneier's book, Data and Goliath, he explains the four basic 0:00 consumer surveillance streams that existed before the Internet. 0:05 First, companies keep track of their customers' purchasing behavior. 0:09 This started out simple, such as hotels keeping track of their frequent guests. 0:14 Then it evolved into monitoring sales from the initial browsing to the final 0:19 purchase. 0:23 Collecting activity via loyalty cards, trading consumer lists with other stores, 0:24 and using customer relationship management tools. 0:30 The second stream is direct marketing, 0:34 where paper mail is sent directly to people's homes. 0:36 While direct is in the name, it was roughly based on location, 0:40 demographics, and customer lists traded from like minded businesses. 0:44 These days it's much more targeted and data informed. 0:49 Thirdly, credit bureaus collect personal financial data. 0:53 Credit history affects a person's approval chances when leasing an apartment or 0:57 taking out a loan. 1:02 The fourth stream is government records such as birth certificates, 1:04 voter registration records and driver's licenses. 1:08 Now these streams have been combined to form large data brokers like Axiom. 1:12 They buy your personal data from the products you use, combine it with other 1:18 data streams, and sell it to companies who want to know more about you. 1:22 And it's not just the retail industry. 1:27 It's even healthcare and law enforcement. 1:29 There are new streams as well. 1:33 Cookies are a common way for browsers to store information. 1:35 This can be anything from a language preference to how a visitor found out 1:39 about the site. 1:43 A cookie is a piece of data sent from a website and 1:44 stored on the user's computer by their web browser. 1:48 Everyday objects are now data collection tools. 1:52 Smart devices such as Amazon Alexa, listen in on people in their homes. 1:55 Providing them services, but 2:00 also collecting data which can be sent to law enforcement. 2:02 HOPE: Harvard professor and author Shoshana Zuboff defines surveillance 2:07 capitalism as unilateral claiming of private human experience as 2:12 free raw material for translation into behavioral data. 2:17 That data is then repackaged into predictions, 2:22 informing companies about what we will do now, soon, and later. 2:26 In the corporate surveillance in everyday life report by crackedlabs.org, 2:31 the primary data collectors are platforms such as Facebook, Google, Apple, 2:37 the three major credit reporting agencies, and consumer data brokers. 2:45 MICHELLE: Technology continues to grow at a much faster pace than the government 2:51 can regulate it. 2:55 The European Union has led the way with its General Data 2:56 Protection Regulation, commonly referred to as EU GDPR. 3:00 It provides data protection and privacy for those in the EU and expands outside of 3:05 its geographical area as it applies to personal data transfer outside the EU. 3:11 You've probably seen a cookie consent banner, 3:17 those became widespread because of GDPR. 3:20 Many companies have become GDPR compliant for 3:23 their entire product, even though they're not required to do so. 3:26 It is too costly and time consuming to provide a different experience for 3:30 a subset of users. 3:34 While companies may feel motivated to stockpile data, 3:36 it's increasingly a liability. 3:40 In the United States, children are further protected by 3:43 the Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule, commonly abbreviated as COPPA. 3:46 Enacted in 2000, it applies to personal information collected from kids under 3:52 13 in the United States. 3:57 It even includes children outside of the US if the company is US-based. 3:59 These are just a couple of examples of data protection regulation. 4:04 There are several laws worldwide that apply to various jurisdictions. 4:08 Check out the link in the teacher's notes. 4:13 HOPE: Sometimes users are pressured to disclose more data. 4:16 In 2016, TechCrunch reported that 4:20 Uber began tracking riders whereabouts after they left their ride. 4:23 Previously, location information was only collected while the app was open. 4:28 The change in 2016 forced users to choose between allowing 4:34 the app to always track their locations or never to track their location. 4:39 The latter meant that they would need to type out their current location for 4:44 every ride request. 4:48 Uber specifically wanted access to a rider's location from when 4:50 a ride is requested until five minutes after the driver drops the passenger off, 4:55 even if the app is not in the foreground of the customer's phone. 5:00 Uber said their intent was to improve drop offs and 5:05 pickups as limiting street crossing is safer. 5:09 But the extra location data could be invasive. 5:13 In 2017, after public pressure, 5:17 Uber re-enabled the option to share location only while using the app. 5:21 Another ethical aspect to consider with data collection 5:26 is whether it is inclusive. 5:30 When required to specify one's gender, often there are only binary 5:32 options of man or woman instead of a spectrum of genders. 5:37 As for race and ethnicity, sometimes there isn't an option to select multiple 5:42 options or an appropriate option that matches one's identity. 5:47 When this information is required, it can put people in a stressful situation 5:51 if they do not know how the data will be used or misused. 5:56 Until 2019, Facebook allowed discriminatory advertising targeting. 6:01 Advertisers could choose to exclude people based on their gender, race, and 6:07 disability when posting job descriptions, housing, and credit offers. 6:12 Some companies defend the selling of our data 6:18 by saying they're providing a free service. 6:21 But is it a fair and balanced deal? 6:24 MICHELLE: Some people argue in defense of data collection by saying, 6:28 I have nothing to hide. 6:31 Machines make decisions on data without context. 6:33 Data can be misinterpreted and predictions of our future behavior can be wrong. 6:36 Excessive data collection hinders our basic human needs for freedom, privacy, 6:41 and safety. 6:46 More on that later. 6:47
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