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Let's evaluate what the runtime and space complexity of our algorithm is now that we've implemented it.

If we go back to the top level, the merge sort function, what does the runtime 0:00 of this function look like, and what about space complexity? 0:05 How does memory usage grow as the algorithm runs? 0:08 To answer those questions, 0:12 let's look at the individual steps, starting with the split function. 0:13 In the split function, all we're doing is finding the midpoint of the list, and 0:17 splitting the list at the midpoint. 0:21 This seems like a constant time operation. 0:23 But remember that the split function isn't called once. 0:25 It's called as many times as we needed to, 0:29 to go from the initial list down to a single element list. 0:31 Now, this is a pattern we've seen a couple of times now, and 0:35 we know that overall, this runs in logarithmic time. 0:38 So let's add that as a comment. 0:42 So here I'll say, takes overall O of log n time. 0:44 Now there's a caveat here but we'll come back to that. 0:52 So next step is the merge step. 0:55 In the merge step, 0:57 we've broken the original list down into single element lists and 0:59 now we need to make comparison operations and merge them back in the reverse order. 1:03 For a list of size n, we'll always need to make an n number of merge 1:08 operations to get back from single element lists to a merge list. 1:13 This makes our overall runtime big O of n times log n because that's an n 1:17 number of merge steps multiplied by a log n number of splits of the original list. 1:23 So to our merge step here, let's add a comment, 1:29 we'll say it runs in overall, whoops there we go. 1:33 Runs in overall linear time right? 1:37 It takes an n number of steps, number of merge steps. 1:40 But now that we have these two, so linear here and 1:44 logarithmic here we can multiply these and 1:48 say that the merge sort function, the top level function, 1:51 we can conclude that the run time of the overall sorting process is O(n log n). 1:56 Now what about the caveat I mentioned earlier? 2:02 So if we go back to our split function here, right here, 2:05 there we go, let's take a look at the way we're actually splitting the list. 2:11 So we're using Python's list slicing operation here, and 2:16 passing in two indexes where the split occurs. 2:20 Now if you go and poke around the Python documentation, which I've done, 2:23 it says that a slicing operation is not a constant time operation, and 2:28 in fact has a run time of O(k), where k represents the sliced sides. 2:33 This means that in reality, our implementation of split, 2:38 this implementation of split, does not run in logarithmic time, but 2:42 (k)(log n) logarithmic time. 2:46 Because there's a slice operation for each split. 2:49 This means that our implementation is much more expensive. 2:53 So overall that makes our overall top level merge_sort function, 2:57 not (n log n) (but kn log n), which is much more expensive. 3:02 Now let's get rid of all that. 3:07 To fix this we would need to remove this slicing operation. 3:11 Now we can do that by using a technique we learned in a previous course. 3:15 In the introduction to algorithms course we looked at two versions of binary search 3:20 in Python a recursive and an iterative version. 3:24 In the recursive one we use list slicing with every recursion call, but we achieve 3:28 the same end result using an iterative approach without using list slicing. 3:33 Over there we declared two variables to keep track of the starting, and 3:37 ending positions in the list. 3:42 We could rewrite merge sort to do the same, but 3:44 I'll leave that as an exercise for you. 3:47 If you want some hints, or 3:49 if you want any direction I've included a link in the notes with an implementation. 3:51 So that is time complexity. 3:55 Now just so we know, before moving on, for 3:58 Python here our overall run time is not what I've listed here. 4:01 But this is what the actual runtime of the merge sort algorithm looks like. 4:05 So the merge step runs in linear time. 4:09 And the split step takes logarithmic time for an overall n times log n. 4:12 And that is how merge sort actually works. 4:17 Okay, so what about space complexity? 4:19 The merge sort algorithm takes linear space. 4:22 And this is weird to think about at first, but as always, a visualization helps. 4:25 [SOUND] So if we start at the top again with our full list and 4:30 carry out the split method until we have single element lists, 4:34 each of these new lists take up a certain amount of space. 4:38 So the second level here we have two lists where each take up an n/2 amount of space. 4:42 Now this makes it seem that the sum of all this space 4:47 is the additional space needed for merge sort, but that's not actually the case. 4:50 In reality, there are two factors that make a difference. 4:55 First, not every single one of these sublists are created simultaneously. 4:58 At step two we create 2n by 2 size sublists. 5:03 When we move to the next step however, we don't hold on to the n by 2 sublist and 5:07 then create 4n by 4 size sublist for the next split. 5:13 Instead after the 4n by 4 size sublists are created, 5:17 the n by 2 ones are deleted from memory. 5:21 There's no reason to hold on to them any longer. 5:24 At the second point is that our code doesn't execute every path simultaneously. 5:27 Think of it this way. 5:32 When we pass our list to the top level merge sort function, 5:34 our implementation called split which returns a left half and a right half. 5:38 The next line of code then calls merge sort on the left half again. 5:45 This runs the function, the merge sort function again with a new list. 5:50 In that second run of the function split is called again, we get a second left and 5:55 right half, and 5:59 then again, like before, we call merge sort on this left half as well. 6:00 What this means is that the code walks down the left path all the way down 6:05 until that initial left half is sorted and merged back into one array. 6:09 Then, it's going to walk all the way down the right path and sort that until we're 6:15 back to that first split with 2 n/2 sized sublists. 6:19 Essentially, we don't run all of these paths of code at once, so 6:24 the algorithm doesn't need additional space for every sublist. 6:28 In fact, it is the very last step that matters. 6:32 In the last step, 6:35 the two sublists are merged back into the new sorted list and returned. 6:36 That sorted list has an equal number of items as the original unsorted list. 6:42 And since this is a new list it means that, at most, 6:48 the additional space the algorithm will require at a given time is n. 6:52 Yes, at different points in the algorithm we require log n amount of space but 6:57 log n is smaller than n and so we consider the space complexity of merge sort to 7:02 be linear because that is the overall factor. 7:07 Okay, that was a lot. 7:10 So let's stop here. 7:12 Don't worry if you've got questions about merge sort because we're not done yet. 7:13 Over the next few videos let's wrap up this course by implementing merge sort on 7:16 a linked list. 7:21

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