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Neuromarketing: The Next Generation of Customer Intelligence37:20 with Diana Lucaci
"If I had asked people what they wanted, they would've said faster horses." - Henry Ford The future of customer-centric and experiential marketing relies heavily on your understanding of the customer. Traditional methods like surveys and focus groups tell you WHO is interested, and WHAT they're buying, but not WHY. Understanding why people do what they do is now made possible with scalable, portable and predictable neuroscience and biometric technologies.
[MUSIC] 0:00 Okay, so just bit of a primer on your marketing. 0:03 You know, when we talked about market research, and 0:06 you know marketing is a subsection of that. 0:09 We think of the traditional market research methods like, your focus groups. 0:12 And I wanna talk a little bit about that. 0:16 And these are great. 0:18 These have been around for a very long time. 0:19 The challenge with a lot of focus groups is that, 0:22 you can often have one person skew the opinion of the other people in the room. 0:24 Or you can have the group effect where, people tend to agree with each other just. 0:28 You know, just to basically say what they think the marketer wants to hear. 0:34 So I sat behind the glass at a couple of these research sessions. 0:38 And I've always felt that there was something more, 0:42 behind what people were meaning to say and, and what they were actually saying. 0:45 And another very popular form of research nowadays is, is conducting surveys. 0:50 And the challenge with this form of 0:56 research I found was you have to really know how to pose a question. 0:59 Because the way you ask a question will influence the answer you're going to get. 1:03 So there are some limitations here. 1:07 We you know at the very core these, these research techniques 1:09 rely on a person's ability to identify how they're feeling. 1:14 And then, to be able to express how they're feeling. 1:18 And we know now from science that, that is, that is pretty hard to do. 1:22 So, you know, Henry Ford figured it out a long time ago. 1:27 He said if I had asked people what they wanted they would have said faster horses. 1:30 So this got me thinking as well. 1:34 There has to be a way to get beneath the surface to understand how 1:35 people truly feel. 1:39 As a marketer, I had a lot of data about who my customers were and 1:41 what they were buying, but I was missing the other component. 1:46 I didn't really understand why they were doing what they were doing. 1:49 And in order do that, I had to dive deeper. 1:53 And so, I looked to neuroscience. 1:55 And when we look at neuroscience you know, 1:57 this is Rene Descartes who back in the 1600s said I think therefore I am. 1:59 And that was largely misinterpreted as the human being as 2:04 logical creature that makes decisions based on all available information. 2:09 And so the paradigm at the time, the neuroscience paradigm was called was, 2:14 was started with thinking and then moving into action. 2:18 Meaning we are logical creatures so, 2:23 therefore, what, what we think guides what we do. 2:25 And since then, we have learned a lot more about the brain. 2:28 We have ways of looking at the brain without physically opening up and 2:35 holding a, a brain. 2:39 We can actually see it in action thanks to the technologies we have available today. 2:40 So what we now know is actually the opposite. 2:45 It's feelings that guide our actions, not so much on logical thinking or 2:49 our, neocortex which we're gonna find out in a little bit. 2:54 So, this is Antonio Damasio he wrote a book in 2010 called Descartes' Error, 2:59 which was a very interesting read. 3:03 And the premise of the book is that emotions are a key input into rationality. 3:06 And why is that? 3:14 You know, it's always good to understand a little bit of the anatomy before taking 3:16 about the the reasons and the applications of this research. 3:21 So when we look at our brains, where, you know, 3:25 men and women, we have the same brain structures. 3:28 We use them differently. 3:31 But when we have sensory information coming in from the outside. 3:32 So all your, five senses, sight, sound, smell, taste, and 3:37 touch, comes in through the core of the brain. 3:40 And moves outwardly towards the top of the brain. 3:44 And the top of the brain is what we call your neocortex or your new brain. 3:46 And, all this information moves out early towards that region. 3:50 In order for you to make decisions, to plan your day, 3:55 to speak, to think rationally and so on. 3:58 So this a, the last, piece in the evolutionary timescale to, 4:02 to have evolved. 4:07 Now, you're going to notice, the middle area that these, the signals 4:09 are passing through, is what we call the limbic system, or middle brain. 4:14 And this middle brain is really where the core of emotion. 4:19 This is where a lot of our gut feelings happen. 4:22 This is where our fight or flight happens. 4:25 So, these are automatic responses that we don't really have to think too much about. 4:28 So when any stimuli from the outside, you know, 4:35 be it a, be it a website, a TV commercial, your spouse calling your name. 4:37 Or whatever it may be, or, or 4:42 a fragrance, it, it enters through the core of your brain and moves outwardly. 4:44 But it goes through the emotional, brain. 4:49 So there's no way to communicate to the logical brain 4:52 without going through the emotional brain, and this is simply based on our anatomy. 4:55 So what we now know is that logic is just the tip of the iceberg, this is 5:02 the obligatory iceberg slide, but really it's the emotion that drives action. 5:07 So, when we look at measuring emotion, we look for certain triggers. 5:13 And I want to tell you a little bit of a story about, 5:17 a study that was done with 600 women. 5:19 Who were given an empty Tiffany's box to hold. 5:22 The logo was not on the box, it was just, that color that, Robin blue-red color. 5:25 And they were told to simply hold the box and their biometrics were measured. 5:31 What they found is their heart rate went up by 20%, 5:36 just from holding an empty blue box. 5:40 And that's kinda cool because you know, 5:45 we now understand that brands are a shortcut towards a reward. 5:48 And in this case the reward in a woman's mind is you know, 5:52 engagement, marriage, children, and so on. 5:55 So there's all these emotions that occur when 5:58 this particular color is being presented. 6:02 And that's, you know, it made their heart rate go up by 20%. 6:05 So, when we look for emotional triggers, that is an, that is an interesting one. 6:09 We also look for other things as well. 6:13 For example, motion. 6:15 So, this is the reason why ads on buses work. 6:16 Because we're designed, from an evolutionary perspective to look out for 6:19 things that are going to harm us that go by really fast. 6:22 So for example you, you, you place and 6:26 ad on a bus that you ad the element of motion. 6:29 Or for example novelty which is a new way of describing a product or 6:32 a new way of looking at an old staple something like LEGO blocks. 6:36 And then there's dissonance. 6:41 And I'm pretty sure that's not a Heineken commercial, but it kinda it 6:42 conveys the point of an image that makes you look twice. 6:48 Something that makes you do a so called double take. 6:52 So this could be something like the Old Spice guy. 6:55 Or you know, that commercial I think from a year or two years ago. 6:57 Or something that makes you really question what it is you're looking at. 7:02 That is another emotional trigger that our brain does not 7:06 spend too much time processing that occurs pretty naturally. 7:10 These are the things we are interested in, in measuring. 7:14 So if there is one thing you learn to take away today or 7:17 tweet or write down let it be this. 7:21 People may say what they think, but they're going to act on how they feel. 7:27 And this is why the field of neuroscience is so important now to business. 7:31 And how do we go about measuring these things? 7:37 Well I'll, I'll start by telling you a cou, a little bit about the technologies. 7:39 And I'll give you some examples about how these technologies are being used today. 7:42 With the term neuromarketing, first of all was coined back in 2002. 7:48 So it, it's not a very, old term, I think it just made dictonary.com. 7:51 And it basically refers to the application of neuroscience technologies to, 7:58 solving marketing challenges. 8:04 So, when we talk about neuroscience tools, we have neuroscience tools, and 8:06 then we have biometrics tools. 8:10 And these are two main buckets, 8:11 I would say under the neuromarketing umbrella, so to speak. 8:15 So obviously we know that neuroscience refers to measuring the brain and 8:19 biometrics refer to measuring the body in general. 8:23 And since the brain directs the body, what we like to 8:27 do is always combine a neuroscience metric with a biometrics measure. 8:30 So, we have tools like the EEG that are available these days. 8:35 So, the EEG is the electroencephalogram, that was technology developed, 8:41 well back in the 60s. 8:45 It used to be, like a swimming cap with a lot of wires coming out of it, 8:47 and nowadays it's a lot more friendly looking. 8:50 It's wireless and a lot easier to use. 8:53 And because of its portability it's often the tool of choice for 8:56 a lot of companies who are looking to understand how their customers feel. 9:01 The next, the next best neuroscience tool 9:05 available is the fMRI which is functional magnetic resonance imaging. 9:10 And this measures changes in bloodflow in the brain and 9:14 we'll talk about these in an, in a little bit in more detail as well. 9:17 The fMRI is a tool that you'd want to use when, 9:20 you're conducting a very large campaign. 9:23 Or when you really want to know and 9:26 be able to predict what people are going to do with a lot more accuracy. 9:27 And the EEG tells you that, to a degree. 9:32 However, the fMRI's a lot more accurate in predicting what people are going to do. 9:34 When it comes to biometrics, we have a couple of tools. 9:39 We have, actually, quite a few. 9:43 we, we like to use, iTracking quite often, in comb, in combination with the EEG. 9:45 Obviously, iTracking measures pupil dilation. 9:50 So that way, you see where people are looking, on a screen. 9:52 When maybe they're navigating a mobile application or 9:57 when they're outside looking at billboards. 10:00 Eye tracking usability applications are really endless. 10:04 And it's a very important biometric that it tells quite of the, 10:08 quite a lot about what, what it, what grabs visual attention. 10:13 Another way to measure how people react is using facial coding. 10:17 And this is a, tool, it's a software that, is being used through the person's webcam. 10:22 The participant activates their web cam. 10:28 And the software basically measures their, facial features and changes in expression. 10:30 To be able to determine what specific emotional states that person's feeling. 10:37 Facial coding is quite scalable. 10:42 Meaning, you can run it over, you know, hundreds, or maybe thousands of, people. 10:44 Every one of these tools has its limitations, and 10:50 its best areas where this should be applied. 10:53 But I want to make you aware of what is out there. 10:56 And of course, there's heart rate, 10:59 which straightforward measures the the increase or decrease in heart rate. 11:02 And skin response, which is sometimes called galvanic skin response, 11:07 measures skin conductivity. 11:11 So whether you have whether you're sweating more than usual or 11:13 whether your skin is fairly dry is an indication of arousal as well. 11:18 So some of the tools that are available that you may have heard about. 11:25 This is a predictive eye tracking tool. 11:28 It's a software that analyzes images. 11:32 And it predicts areas of visual focus. 11:34 So here we don't have people actually wearing eye tracking glasses. 11:36 This is a software, right so it, 11:40 it you im, you input an image and it tells you where people are most likely to look. 11:42 Based on what we know about the visual system. 11:47 And we know a lot about the visual system, 11:50 actually, it's the most well understood system in the brain. 11:52 So things like contrast, or shape, or 11:55 faces are much more likely to attract attention. 11:57 And the correlation also between the software and 12:04 actual eye tracking studies is quite high these days. 12:07 So, if you only have a very small budget using a software like this is ideal. 12:10 Because it gives you and idea of where people are, are most likely to look. 12:16 You get to learn what is likely to be seen and what is, likely to be missed. 12:21 And ultimately you have a much better understanding of visual awareness. 12:27 This is a quite popular example of an eye tracking study for SunSilk. 12:36 And in this particular situation the areas that are more red are areas of 12:43 more visual focus versus greenish or yellowish. 12:47 Which are not really areas where people were looking. 12:51 It's interesting to see how, when the model's face is looking straight ahead, 12:56 people are most likely to look at the content above it. 13:01 And, obviously at her face. 13:04 We're designed, actually, to look at faces, you know, before, you know, 13:05 spotting shampoo bottles. 13:10 So, um,a person looking straight at you will grab your attention. 13:11 And sometimes in some, advertisements a face may compete with a product product. 13:16 Such as here where the product itself yet is not getting any visual attention. 13:20 However, when you make a small modification, 13:26 in shifting where her eyes are looking. 13:30 You can now see that the brain is a lot more interested in you, 13:33 know what is she looking at? 13:37 So the eye is drawn to the bottle this time, and obviously to her, 13:38 her face and the actual product and to the content above it. 13:43 So, this is just to illustrate the point that you can make small changes and, and, 13:47 and get quite, quite significant results. 13:53 Now, when we're talking about combining neuroscience with a biometric, 13:58 I mentioned we tend to use EEG and eye-tracking. 14:03 And the reason for that is because, if you just do eye-tracking alone, you can, 14:06 you get an understanding of where people are looking. 14:10 And often times, you know the way I see it is you can look at a picture of 14:12 a train wreck for example for a very long time. 14:16 But it does not necessarily mean that you like what you're looking at. 14:18 So we want to know if people are focusing in 14:22 one area what are they actually feeling at the same time? 14:25 Are they spending a lot of time on this package or 14:28 on this website because they're liking what they're reading. 14:31 Or is it because they're confused and they're just going over the content. 14:34 Or the image to try to make sense of it. 14:37 And so combining these two metrics 14:41 the metrics coming from the eye tracking a the EEG gives us that full picture. 14:47 The EEG tells us about brain activity. 14:51 It tells us whether someone's paying attention. 14:53 Whether they're bored. 14:56 Whether they're motivated, by what they're looking at. 14:58 And obviously, a tracking measure is visual focus. 15:02 Ultimately, we get, metrics of emotional engagement, mental attention. 15:06 And when a person is highly engaged and paying attention. 15:12 We have noticed that, that has a correlation with the perceived quality and 15:18 value of that product that they're looking at. 15:22 So we want to make sure that they're spending the time on the right items. 15:24 And they are, they are actually experiencing positive and 15:30 emotional engagement with what they're looking at. 15:34 When we conduct this research in store and 15:39 obviously this can be taken out into the world. 15:41 You can do these studies in a store. 15:44 Our on a mobile device or on a computer. 15:49 It looks something like this. 15:53 So, the person's wearing a headset, which is, it feels like headphones kinda. 15:55 It's wireless. 16:00 And they are able to wear the eye-tracking glasses as well. 16:02 So we're, so we can see where they're looking. 16:05 And they're walking around and 16:07 experiencing the world or they're following maybe a script. 16:08 If we tell them you have to go out and buy so and so. 16:14 They go out and do that and 16:17 we see along the way what captured their attention and, and what they're noticing. 16:18 When we take this data back, 16:26 this is a visualization of what this data looks like in the lab so to speak. 16:28 We can tell the difference between someone paying attention and 16:34 someone who is well I call it at rest or spacing out if you will. 16:38 If in this particular example the person on the left is told just to relax and 16:44 the person on the right is told to perform a math equation. 16:49 So you can see the difference in brain activity when 16:54 someone is really focused and working at doing something. 16:57 And when someone's relaxing. 17:01 So, neuromarketing has been used extensively, 17:08 over the last ten years or more. 17:11 One interesting example comes from Campbell's where, 17:14 using neuroscience they have redesigned their packaging. 17:18 They have moved their logo to the bottom. 17:21 They found that the spoon with the actual soup in it, if you look at the old label. 17:23 The spoon had no emotional engagement. 17:28 And instead what they did, they updated the bowl and 17:32 added vapors to make it look more emotionally engaging. 17:34 And instead of putting the logo at the bottom, at the top, at the top I 17:39 mean now at the top we have the different varieties of soups that are available. 17:42 So, this was a lengthy process with testing along the way, 17:47 but the newer product was is performing a lot better. 17:51 And if you go to the stores you're going to see them looking like this nowadays. 17:55 And I don't think there's any labels like the old one, available anymore. 17:58 So I'm going to play two videos for you and I hope they're going to come through. 18:07 But what we're going to do is, I want to show you, how obvious or 18:12 maybe not so obvious. 18:17 The difference is between commercial that is successful or 18:20 that is easy to understand and more likely to, to be shared. 18:24 And a commercial that is perhaps not so engaging. 18:29 So you're going to watch two commercials and 18:33 then I'm gonna ask you which one you think the most emotionally engaging. 18:36 >> So this performance basketball is another way Bridgestone is 18:40 bringing its tire technologies to the world of sports. 18:45 >> You got it. 18:51 >> See [UNKNOWN] being tested. 18:51 >> Tim Duncan? 18:53 And Steve [NOISE]. 18:54 >> So how exactly would this [INAUDIBLE]? 18:56 >> [INAUDIBLE] >> What's that? 19:00 >> [INAUDIBLE] 19:03 >> At Bridgestone, [INAUDIBLE] for performance knows [INAUDIBLE]. 19:05 >> Did that come through okay? 19:12 [BLANK_AUDIO] 19:13 The audio didn't come through? 19:19 Okay. 19:20 So the second commercial, you may have seen this one. 19:24 [SOUND] 19:29 [MUSIC] 19:33 Driver's [INAUDIBLE] [SOUND]. 20:02 Okay, so between the sleeping baby commercial and the beaver commercial. 20:03 Which one do you think had the highest emotional engagement when tested with EEG? 20:07 Everyone agrees with beaver? 20:14 Okay. 20:17 Great job. 20:19 [LAUGH] what we notice is actually that there are peaks during the commercial. 20:19 Where peaks of emotional engagement. 20:25 Where you know I think obviously when the beaver was avoided. 20:28 When the person sees that the bridge went out. 20:33 And then at the very end. 20:36 It's interesting to see how certain aspects of 20:38 the commercial had a higher emotional impact than other aspects. 20:41 And, sometimes it's around action. 20:45 Sometimes it's around humor. 20:47 But what this particular commercial did compared to 20:49 the previous one is it not only was it really simple and straight forward. 20:52 So quite obvious to pick out that this was the better one, 20:56 but it ended on a high note as well. 20:59 Which is an important aspect when you're conducting, 21:02 when we conduct research we notice from neuroscience perspective. 21:05 When you end on a high note, you tend to have a better overall engagement. 21:09 [BLANK_AUDIO] 21:13 So, I wanna tell you another story, about a study we did using EEG and Eye Tracking. 21:15 This time it was to uncover from mobile applications. 21:22 So this was done last year with, in partnership with Plastic Mobile. 21:27 With three, three applications, Pizza Pizza, Best Buy, and Hyatt. 21:31 And what we wanted to see is for the first time, actually, at that time. 21:37 We want to understand how, how can you design a better m commerce experience. 21:42 And how can you make sure that you reduce hurdles so 21:46 that people are able to, use m commerce apps a lot easier. 21:49 And, and obviously, use them more often. 21:54 So, what we did and 21:59 I'll tell you an example this study included surveys as well. 22:00 It included eye tracking, included EEG, so it's a bigger study. 22:05 You can download the full white paper on our website which is trueimpact.ca. 22:08 But now I want to tell you about how Pizza Pizza performed because it was 22:12 an interesting case. 22:17 We asked people to use the app. 22:19 And, and we give them different stages in the navigation process. 22:22 First, they had to open the app and this was the discovery stage, 22:26 which was when they were basically getting accustomed to the app. 22:29 There was a selection stage, where in this case they had to order a pizza. 22:32 And then there was a checkout stage, 22:35 when they had to input their details and actually place the order. 22:37 We asked people. 22:42 What was your most preferred stage in this navigation process? 22:44 And everyone says selection. 22:47 Meaning everyone agreed that choosing your pizza and 22:50 their toppings was the most enjoyable thing for them to do. 22:52 And, what was the least favorite was checkout. 22:57 Which was not a surprise. 23:00 I mean its it's more painful to, to pull out your wallet, put it on 23:01 your credit card and pay for something than it is to choose toppings on a pizza. 23:06 And what we also did during that time is we measured their brain activity during 23:12 navigation of the application. 23:15 So we tracked all these stages and 23:17 actually in a little bit more detail we measured their emotional engagement. 23:19 And we notice in fact that it was the exact opposite of 23:24 what they said the engagement started on a low end. 23:27 However, towards the end a checkout is when it ended on a very high note. 23:32 And this was an interesting finding because when we compared it to 23:38 the other apps, this was the only one that performed this way. 23:41 so, the checkout stage have the highest emotional engagement in this case. 23:46 And here you can see how the other apps performed. 23:50 There was Best Buy, in the yellow, and Hyatt in the blue line. 23:52 And they all kinda declined in emotional engagement towards the end. 23:55 Particularly as people had to enter their information at the very end. 24:01 You can see that emotional engagement is declining compared to the Pizza Pizza app, 24:05 which is the only one performing differently. 24:10 And what's also interesting to see is that this reaction that we noticed in the lab, 24:14 was actually correlated with real-world results. 24:18 So, on the app store you can see that the Pizza Pizza app was 24:21 downloaded over 6600 times. 24:25 And has, almost a five star rating, I think. 24:28 Whereas the other two apps are not really performing as well, in terms of rating and 24:30 number of downloads. 24:36 So this was interesting, and our observation was the feelings trump words. 24:40 And, you know, for someone like myself that's not so much, of a surprise anymore. 24:44 But, the recommendation, which is a big one actually. 24:51 At this point when your designing mobile applications is to really focus on 24:54 reducing the hurdles at checkout. 24:58 And the way Pizza Pizza did it was different than the way the other 25:00 apps did it. 25:03 And here we only compare commerce apps. 25:03 But, having fewer fields or having images instead of, 25:07 text, easy to push big buttons, or flashing. 25:12 You know, once you make your selection making sure that that 25:17 button flashes a little bit. 25:21 Things like that, usability principles like that make a huge difference in 25:23 how many people use the app and how much they enjoy using the app. 25:27 Particularly at the stage where they hate, at the stage that they hate the most. 25:30 That they say they dislike the most. 25:35 So, another, another interesting finding that came out of that study was, 25:39 don't make them wait. 25:44 And this is, this is, an interesting one, 25:45 because even though Pizza, Pizza ended on a very high note. 25:47 When the app opened up, it was on average, it took about 7.2 seconds to load. 25:51 Which is a fairly long time when you're waiting for 25:56 an app to open, compared to the previous ones. 25:59 So and, and that change was actually reflected that difference was 26:01 actually reflected in people's emotional engagement. 26:06 the, the faster you can let people in to experience your app the better. 26:10 And here we can see eye tracking research that was done on the homepage of that app. 26:14 So, for Pizza Pizza, it would be promotion at the top was noticed right away. 26:20 Also at the bottom what that is at the bottom is actually a rotating carousel. 26:25 And, as soon as the carousel started moving, it grabbed people's attention. 26:30 And for Best Buy's well, you can see the areas of visual focus. 26:36 Unfortunately for Hyatt it is interesting to study. 26:41 Hyatt does a good job with its main image which in that case is 26:44 a father holding his son kinda doing an airplane pose, I guess. 26:48 People are very likely to look at faces. 26:52 And just like we saw before with the shampoo shampoo bottle, 26:56 pointing out a face next to a product, it's competing for attention. 27:01 So in this case, that image is emotionally engaging, 27:06 however the brand is not getting a lot of visual attention. 27:10 And the promotions are not as well. 27:14 So here we see the difference, 27:18 when you don't let people in right away to experience the brand. 27:20 There's, a big difference in emotional engagement between the red line, 27:23 which is Pizza Pizza and the rest, that loaded, faster. 27:28 So observation was first impressions set the tone, and 27:35 make sure you don't make them wait to experience your brand. 27:39 Now I wanna talk about functional MRI. 27:45 So that, you know, we, we saw what EEG can do. 27:48 EEG is portable, it's less expensive. 27:52 It, it gives you a great idea of what people are feeling. 27:55 If you want to know for sure what people are going to do. 27:59 Then you have to use, what I call the Cadillac of neuroscience research which is 28:02 the MRI at this point in time. 28:05 And the fMRI, the requires blood oxygen levels throughout the brain. 28:08 And, what that does, is not only are we mapping the brain in three dimensions, but 28:13 we can see how changes in blood flow occur. 28:18 By measuring where oxygen is flowing. 28:21 So the, the principle here is if an area's more active then it requires more blood. 28:24 The more blood you, you send to a region of the brain the more oxygen it 28:29 receives and it will be picked up by this machine. 28:33 So with the fMRI we look for activation in certain regions of the brain. 28:36 And you know, it's interesting that the brain anatomy is not a one to one. 28:42 It's not like one region does only one thing. 28:46 It's more like a network. 28:49 It's a many to many network. 28:49 So we look for activations in certain areas of the brain in particular order. 28:52 Such as the nucleus accumbens or the medial prefrontal cortex and 28:57 the amygdala and so on. 29:02 These are regions of the brain that are part of a reward pathway. 29:04 Which is basically what activates in all our minds when we, 29:10 we're doing something enjoyable. 29:13 So if it's eating, or gambling, or whatever, whatever makes you feel great. 29:15 Your brain responds with a, with a, 29:21 an increase in activation in, in these particular areas. 29:24 So those are the regions we want to know, 29:27 what stimulates that feeling of reward in the brain. 29:30 And ultimately using this tool gives you a really accurate way of knowing what 29:34 people are going to do. 29:38 You can measure things like a person's intent you can measure engagement lust, 29:40 familiarity, confusion and many other emotions. 29:45 More specific motions, 29:49 I mean, what's interesting is the MRI can actually predict decisions. 29:51 So back in 2007 I believe, at the Max Planck Institute, 29:55 about 70 people were given a button board, and they were told to press either A or B. 30:01 And it wasn't about which button they chose to press, 30:08 it was about determining what they were going to do before they did it. 30:10 So, these people were put in an MRI, they were told to press each button. 30:14 And their brain activity was recorded from the time when 30:18 they decided to press the button to the time when they actually press the button. 30:23 And what was interesting to see in the findings now this comes straight out of 30:28 the research, but I'll tell you what this means. 30:32 wha, what they found is actually that the brain has a delay in between 30:35 the time when the emotional brain, the core of the brain makes a decision. 30:40 And the logical brain clues in and that delays as much as seven seconds. 30:45 So, basically your emotional brain makes a decision as much as 30:49 seven seconds before your logical brain gets a chance to clue in. 30:53 This has huge implications and definitely you know, you know, 30:58 it raises questions about free will and so on. 31:04 And I'm not gonna get into that right now. 31:06 But it's interesting to know that when we go out and 31:08 we choose everything from the car we buy to the what we order in a restaurant. 31:12 It's a lot more driven by our gut feeling than we like to believe. 31:18 And the fMRI is also a great tool for predicting. 31:24 What's going to be popular in the market. 31:30 In this particular study and this was done at 31:33 the UCLA participants were shown three commercials. 31:37 They were shown three anti-smoking commercials. 31:42 And they were told to say th, they were told to rate them in order and 31:45 actually choose the one they prefer the most. 31:50 So they verbally chose campaign b or commercial b. 31:53 Now, they watch the commercial in the MRI and 31:58 their brain actually responded to commercial c. 32:03 And, what was interesting about the study is, 32:07 first of all we see a difference between what people say and what they truly feel. 32:10 Which is something we see quite often with marketing research. 32:15 But what's interesting to note, is that when they went out into the market, 32:18 they played all these commercials. 32:24 And, what was interesting to see is that commercials that were played in 32:27 the market actually, the results correlated with the fMRI results. 32:31 the, they measured the column volumes into an anti-smoking hotline. 32:36 And commercial C, the one predicted by the MRI, performed a lot better. 32:40 And this was out in the market. 32:45 This was not just for that sample of a 100 or so people. 32:47 It was for, it was mass population behavior. 32:51 So that is the second interesting finding coming out of the study. 32:57 Would you guys be interested to see the winning commercial? 33:00 [BLANK_AUDIO] 33:02 >> 'Kay. 33:05 [BLANK_AUDIO] >> Steve, are you smoking? 33:10 >> Yeah. 33:12 >> Didn't we agree you go outside? 33:13 >> It's raining. >> I can't see why [INAUDIBLE] wet. 33:14 >> Do you think [INAUDIBLE] outside. 33:16 I don't know what else I can do. 33:19 >> You're a [INAUDIBLE], Steve. 33:20 You can [INAUDIBLE] quit now [INAUDIBLE] patient [INAUDIBLE]. 33:22 >> Quitting is hard. 33:29 Dialing 1800 QUIT NOW is easy. 33:31 If you're ready to try, free information [INAUDIBLE] counseling 33:33 [INAUDIBLE] >> Okay. 33:39 So it, it, it's interesting to see. 33:45 Actually I'm gonna go back just a little bit to tell you about the reason why 33:47 this was actually successful. 33:51 Is because it appeals to our emotional part of the brain. 33:53 I mean, it's about it's, it's fingers, but 33:56 it's basically the wife telling the husband to quit. 33:59 And outside it's raining, and she stops, and she sheds a tear. 34:02 And this had a much higher emotional impact in people's minds than 34:06 the other commercial they verbally chose. 34:09 Which I believe was one about the health adversities of smoking. 34:11 So they verbally said yes, you know, you should go with that one, 34:17 because I know that smoking is bad for me. 34:20 But in fact most people quit when a loved one really presses them to quit. 34:22 So [BLANK_AUDIO] 34:28 So next I'm going to tell you about another case study that looks at 34:32 the difference between digital and print. 34:37 Because a lot of, a lot of neuromarketing research looks at a campaign, or 34:41 a looks ad, or you know, which communication is best. 34:47 But very rarely to we get a chance to study a general communication. 34:50 So this particular example comes from the UK. 34:55 And Royal Mail actually was wondering, wanted to find out, 34:59 is there a difference between physical media and virtual media. 35:04 So what they did is inside an MRI. 35:09 They presented people with a digital image of a, 35:11 I believe it was landscape images and actually giving them a postcard to hold. 35:14 And you view that an MRI you can show them you can 35:20 show people images using mirrors that are positioned right in front of their face. 35:23 Or you can give them a postcard to hold the wit, which is of course is, 35:28 is possible since there's no metal involved in a Direct Mail piece. 35:33 So they were able to study both media. 35:37 And what was interesting to see, is that the physical media or 35:41 the printed piece, had a much higher emotional engagement. 35:44 What they found was actually that tangible materials are a lot more likely to 35:48 become part of memory. 35:52 And this had to do with the activation it had in certain regions, 35:53 in the temporal lobe. 35:58 And they're much more likely to promote a positive brand association. 36:00 So not only are they remembering what they're looking at a lot better. 36:06 But their, now, 36:09 their impression of the brain has changed and has improved as a result. 36:10 So this is an interesting study, because, it really makes us wonder. 36:16 Well, when should we use print, and when should be use digital? 36:21 And, that, that's a really big question. 36:24 It would depend, obviously, from industry to industry, and so on. 36:26 But, when it comes to conducting marking communication activities, 36:29 or, sending out, any message. 36:35 It's, it's good to take a look at what print can do because it 36:38 has a much different impact on the brain than something digital. 36:41 So, just to wrap it up a little bit, why do we, why do we care about neuroscience? 36:47 You know, at the end of the day, 36:52 these sorta insights are the insights that can help you. 36:53 Produce winning communications that are really optimized for, for people's brains. 36:57 This is the only way to find out how people are truly feeling. 37:03 These are insights otherwise unknown. 37:07 And ultimately by being able to predict group preferences you 37:10 have a much better chance of capturing a larger share of wallet. 37:14 [BLANK_AUDIO] 37:17
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