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NumPy integrates with a whole slew of external packages and tools. Let's take a look at the plotting library, matplotlib

#### Learn More

- [Introduction to Data Visualization With Matplotlib course](https://teamtreehouse.com/library/introduction-to-data-visualization-with-matplotlib_

#### My Notes for Routines in Action

```
## Common Routines
* Common [mathematical](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy-1.14.0/reference/routines.math.html) [routines](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy-1.14.0/reference/routines.html) are exposed so the formula can be abstracted away.
* [`mean`](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy-1.14.0/reference/generated/numpy.mean.html#numpy.mean) is a [statistics](https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy-1.14.0/reference/routines.statistics.html) routine used to calculate the average.
* Reduction functions take a dimension and collapse it into a single value.
* These functions define an axis parameter, and you should remember that the function works across the dimension.
```

Just about every Python data library that you come across is going to accept and 0:00 produce NumPy arrays. 0:04 Let's take a look at a common use case, plotting our data graphically. 0:06 Let's go and get Matplotlib installed. 0:10 So here are my reflection notes, but before we review them, let's multitask. 0:13 We need to install Matplotlib, so let's flip over to our terminal. 0:17 And we will stop the server with Ctrl + C and do I wanna shut this down? 0:23 I'm gonna click yes to shut it down. 0:27 If we go back at the prompt and we're gonna type conda install matplotlib. 0:30 And as that starts happening, we are just gonna go and 0:36 flip over back to our notebook, I'm gonna say OK, it's still up. 0:39 So it says connecting the kernel, that's fine cause the server is down. 0:43 So let's take a look at this. 0:47 So some common mathematical routines are exposed so 0:48 the formula could be abstracted away. 0:51 That was awesome. 0:54 So we saw mean was like that. 0:55 STD or standard deviation was like that. 0:56 A note here of reduction functions take a dimension and it will collapse. 0:59 It will reduce across that into a single value. 1:03 And that axis parameter is one that's a little bit tricky. 1:05 Good thing we made note of that with some examples. 1:08 Awesome, and it works across the dimension. 1:11 So that's the common routines. 1:13 And I did another one, 1:15 another little section here about the universal functions. 1:16 So here we go. 1:20 Universal functions expose a function to reduce an array to a single value. 1:21 And there's also a function called accumulate, which is nice, 1:25 cuz you can see things as it accumulates. 1:28 Let's see how we're doing with our server. 1:31 Shoot. 1:36 Yes, we want that to install. 1:37 I was trying to be a little too fast. 1:39 All right, cool. 1:40 Here, we're good. 1:41 So, let's go ahead and let's start that notebook back up, jupyter notebook. 1:42 And we should be able to just do it over here, if we come back here and 1:49 we say Kernel > Restart & Run All. 1:54 Here we go, back to it. 1:58 If you haven't used matplotlib lib before, it's a wonderful, versatile, and 2:02 quite popular graphing library. 2:07 There is more in the teachers notes if you would like to learn more. 2:09 So I'm gonna come up here into my import and I am going to add matplotlib. 2:11 So I will say import matplotlib.pyplot. 2:17 And keeping things lazy it's called PLT typically as plt. 2:23 Awesome, so what can we do with that? 2:30 Well, what do you say we create a graph that shows the student's GPA's matrix? 2:34 So let's get down to where that was at, here we go. 2:40 Let's get rid of a couple of these. 2:43 [SOUND] And I'm going to come here. 2:45 We should probably convey the way that each student performed over the year. 2:48 Now, choosing which type of graph to get your point across the best 2:55 is an art form in and of itself. 2:59 Now, one effective way that I've seen this expressed 3:01 is by using what is known as a box plot. 3:05 So, what a box plot does, is that it shows the range, the maximum and the minimum and 3:08 the various quartiles and the mean, all in one graph. 3:12 Well, the the best way to explore anything is to just to explore it. 3:16 Let's do it. 3:19 Off of the py plot module, there is a function named box plot, plt.boxplot(). 3:21 And it takes an array, so let's give it our array, so 3:29 let's say students_gpas, and then I'm gonna go ahead and do plt.plot(). 3:32 That will actually draw it here for us in our notebook. 3:38 Check this out. 3:41 [SOUND] students_gpas is not defined. 3:48 I wonder if that's because I ran the line. 3:53 Let's try that one more time. 3:56 Restart & Run All. 3:57 It looked like it worked. 4:03 Sorry about that. 4:07 Drops us down at the bottom too, so we've got to get back up to where we were. 4:10 There we go, there's our graph. 4:15 Look at that. 4:17 It looks like we're doing the right math, but it's along the years, right. 4:18 So this is 1, 2, 3, 4 if you remember what our, or students GPA's look like. 4:22 Fourth was all 4, and these was 4, 3.2, 3.96, let's just make sure, yeah, 4:28 that's what's happening here. 4:32 So, it's along the years instead of along the students. 4:34 This is also a perfectly fine way of looking at things, but 4:38 it's not what we're after. 4:41 So this bottom whisker here is the minimum and the top whisker is the maximum. 4:43 Here's the interquartile and this is the median here. 4:48 It's a bummer that the box plot is graphing along the columns. 4:52 Wasn't there a way to switch the axis of the array? 4:57 Like you can go from a 4 to 3 to a 3 to 4? 5:01 I'm pretty sure it was on that array manipulation doc that we linked to in our 5:04 notes. 5:09 If you don't remember how to do this, why don't you go and find that? 5:10 Give me a pause and see if you can't find it in the documentation and 5:14 get this graph showing what we want. 5:17 Go ahead, pause me. 5:19 Did you find it? 5:22 It's transposed. 5:23 So .T right? 5:24 On all arrays it will actually transpose and it will switch the order of arrays. 5:27 So lets run that one more time. 5:30 Beautiful, here we go. 5:32 So we got the three students, this is me. 5:33 I was all over the place. 5:36 Quesy doing good, like we said. 5:37 And here's Vlada doing well as well. 5:40 Got so much better from the start. 5:43 So what do you think we could do with our 100 days of code study minutes? 5:45 I know one of the questions that I get often is 5:50 how much time do you actually spend doing it? 5:52 Because sometimes it's hard to stop once you get on a roll. 5:55 [LAUGH] I'm definitely one to overdo it. 5:57 So let's go down to our study a minute, so I'm gonna scroll down here. 6:00 Right about here. 6:05 One way to tackle this is to group your data, right? 6:07 Now there's a type of graph known as histogram 6:10 that will group your data into bins or buckets and then display it. 6:13 It's pretty perfect for what we need actually. 6:18 So remember that we dropped the values that were under 60, 6:21 so we really just want values that are greater than 0. 6:24 So the name of the function is hist, short for 6:28 histogram, not like what a cat does when you try to be nice to it. 6:33 So we're gonna put it here, all of the minutes 6:37 that are greater than 0. 6:44 Actually, why don't you do that? 6:46 So I'm gonna leave a little to do here for 6:49 you, so we're gonna say pass in 6:55 a one dimensional array of all 7:00 the minutes that are greater than zero. 7:05 So you got that, right. 7:11 You can do that. 7:12 Go ahead. Enter this hist function, 7:13 pass in a one dimensional array of all the minutes that are greater than zero. 7:15 Go ahead pause me. 7:17 You got this. 7:19 How'd you do? 7:21 Did you get it? 7:21 So we can index our study_minutes array with a Boolean array, right? 7:23 And we're gonna use broadcasting here, 7:30 cuz we're gonna broadcast this 0 using this comparison operator and 7:33 that will give us a one dimensional array of all the values, and so we can say plot. 7:37 Bam, look at that. 7:45 There's some buckets that got defined by our data, so 25ish, 7:48 maybe 26, 27 times, we were in the 1st range of 60 or so. 7:52 And you could tweak this actually a little bit more, but 7:58 I think that this gets the point across pretty well. 8:00 There's times where I was down here in the three-hour range. 8:02 But mostly, it was up here. 8:06 [LAUGH] And then there was even one where we kind of crazy down here. 8:07 I hope that you are starting to see and 8:10 feel comfortable navigating around the wonderful world of NumPy. 8:13 You'll see it everywhere. 8:17 Like everywhere. 8:19 And being able to use it and 8:20 understand the terminology surround it will greatly help your data journey. 8:21 Matplotlib is just one of hundreds of data related libraries 8:26 that work great with NumPy. 8:30 I am excited to see what you do with it. 8:32

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