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The IF function is called a conditional function. It returns a value based on logic you specify. For example, say you wanted to know how many years certain countries had populations less than 10 million people? Or how many days a stock price was higher than $100? Or how many pieces of wood had a width of exactly 7 inches? You can answer all these questions, and many more using the IF function.

#### Example Files

- you can continue to use the spreadsheet from the last video, or
- open a copy of this spreadsheet to catch up to this video

#### Reference

Now that you have a solid understanding of sum, average and median. 0:00 Lets introduce a new function, the if function. 0:05 If is a pretty foundational concept in computer programming and 0:09 not surprisingly also important in spreadsheets. 0:12 If is a conditional function that returns a value based on logic you put 0:16 in the function. 0:21 For example, say you wanted to know how many years certain countries had 0:22 populations less than 10 million people or how many days a stock price was higher 0:27 than a $100 ,or how many pieces of wood had a width of exactly three inches? 0:32 You can answer all of these questions and many more using the if function. 0:38 Let's take a look at the function syntax and 0:43 then walk through a couple of examples. 0:45 >> So again, we select a cell. 0:48 Hit Enter, write the equals sign. 0:51 Then IF, then parenthesis and we can see the assistance below. 0:54 Logical expression can be many things, for example 1:02 you can test if the values in two cells are the same using the equality operator. 1:05 Or you can test if two values are not the same. 1:10 You'd use an inequality operator and so forth. 1:12 The example that Google Sheets has given is text based. 1:15 But note the syntax. 1:19 If a logical expression, comma, 1:21 then the value that is returned if it's true, the logical expression is true. 1:24 Then a comma then a value that's returned if the logical expression is false. 1:29 So let's walk through an example of this together. 1:34 In this cell, we've written a formula based on if that says, 1:39 if cell A9 is equal to the text Happy, 1:46 then if true, return the text that says A9 is Happy, and 1:52 comma, then if it's not true, return the text that says A9 is not Happy. 1:57 So we can see here cell A9 is not Happy, so this is returning A9 is not happy. 2:03 What happens if I actually write Happy in cell A9. 2:13 You can see that this automatically changed to read A9 is happy. 2:16 So I can undo that, A9 is not happy. 2:22 I can redo it, A9 is happy. 2:25 Let's look at another example. 2:29 If E8 is equal to 4, then return 1. 2:31 If it's not return a text, try again. 2:38 So it's return and try again. 2:43 If I make this 4, now it's 1. 2:45 5, back to try again. 2:49 Notice for text, that you have to put it in quotation marks, or it won't work. 2:53 You get an error. 3:00 And the description of the error is formula parse error. 3:01 For a beginner, that's not very helpful. 3:03 But just note that when you're writing text and formulas, 3:05 they have to be in quotation marks. 3:08 We can use this if function in another way as well, so 3:17 let's just show you one more example. 3:21 Where instead of an equality or an inequality we have a greater than. 3:24 So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna write here, if. 3:28 And I wanna display all the pieces of wood that have heights greater than three. 3:33 So if A6 is greater than 3, then I'm going to return true. 3:41 If it's not, Too small, for example. 3:50 So here A6 is greater than 3, 3:57 in this case it's actually 6, so it returns a value True. 3:59 Now I'm gonna copy this formula, All the way down. 4:05 And we can see that through relative referencing, 4:12 we've been able to carry this formula all the way down and for every piece of wood 4:17 that is not greater than three, we've got the result too small. 4:22

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