1 00:00:00,650 --> 00:00:06,560 Welcome, in this video, I will introduce you to the terms bit and byte. 2 00:00:06,560 --> 00:00:10,824 We will then identify some common prefixes used for larger values and 3 00:00:10,824 --> 00:00:13,180 what they mean to you. 4 00:00:13,180 --> 00:00:18,320 You may have a mobile phone or a digital camera that uses very small storage cards. 5 00:00:18,320 --> 00:00:23,400 This is called a microSD card, and it's small enough to fit on your thumb. 6 00:00:23,400 --> 00:00:26,852 Ten years ago, you can purchase one of these cards and 7 00:00:26,852 --> 00:00:32,236 you can take hundreds of high resolution photographs before running out of space. 8 00:00:32,236 --> 00:00:38,492 Today, you can buy a thumb sized card and take hundreds of thousands of photographs. 9 00:00:38,492 --> 00:00:40,580 How is this possible? 10 00:00:40,580 --> 00:00:47,626 To start, let's get a better understanding of bits and bytes. 11 00:00:47,626 --> 00:00:52,000 A bit is the smallest unit of data or information. 12 00:00:52,000 --> 00:00:56,570 It is short for binary digit, which means it is either one or zero. 13 00:00:57,660 --> 00:01:02,695 You can think of this as a light switch in the on or off position or 14 00:01:02,695 --> 00:01:06,497 the answer to a yes no question as true or false. 15 00:01:07,537 --> 00:01:12,306 A byte commonly consists of 8 bits. 16 00:01:12,306 --> 00:01:18,134 Historically, it was used to store a single character like the letter R or 17 00:01:18,134 --> 00:01:19,360 the number 7. 18 00:01:19,360 --> 00:01:22,770 We usually refer to a file size in terms of bytes. 19 00:01:24,050 --> 00:01:28,980 For example, this Python icon is 559 bytes. 20 00:01:30,290 --> 00:01:36,640 My resume stored as a word processing file is 26,000 bytes. 21 00:01:36,640 --> 00:01:41,513 The movie Hidden Figures stored on a Blu-ray disk is 22 00:01:41,513 --> 00:01:44,400 more than 39 billion bytes. 23 00:01:44,400 --> 00:01:49,164 There is a better way to refer to these large numbers by using different 24 00:01:49,164 --> 00:01:51,356 prefixes before the word byte. 25 00:01:51,356 --> 00:01:58,116 For example, kilo means 1,000 or 1 followed by three 0s. 26 00:01:58,116 --> 00:02:00,282 You may have heard of kilo before. 27 00:02:00,282 --> 00:02:03,642 A kilogram means 1,000 grams. 28 00:02:03,642 --> 00:02:08,108 A kilometer or kilometer means 1,000 meters. 29 00:02:08,108 --> 00:02:15,526 So instead of 26,000 bytes, I would say that my resume is 26 kilobytes. 30 00:02:15,526 --> 00:02:20,700 Mega means 1 million or 1 followed by six 0s. 31 00:02:20,700 --> 00:02:27,510 My favorite song stored on a portable music player is 4.7 megabytes. 32 00:02:27,510 --> 00:02:33,522 Giga means 1 billion, or 1 followed by nine 0s. 33 00:02:33,522 --> 00:02:38,300 A DVD of Hidden Figures is 39.26 gigabytes. 34 00:02:39,640 --> 00:02:43,050 There are more prefixes for even larger values. 35 00:02:43,050 --> 00:02:47,000 The largest widely recognized prefix is yotta. 36 00:02:47,000 --> 00:02:53,440 A yottabyte is 1 septillion bytes, or 1 followed by 24 0s. 37 00:02:54,520 --> 00:02:58,284 This is about 45 trillion Blu-ray movie disks or 38 00:02:58,284 --> 00:03:02,055 1,000 years of worldwide Internet traffic. 39 00:03:02,055 --> 00:03:03,803 To house 1 yottabyte of data, 40 00:03:03,803 --> 00:03:07,990 you would need a data center roughly the size of the state of Connecticut. 41 00:03:09,080 --> 00:03:11,990 Back to that microSD card for your phone. 42 00:03:11,990 --> 00:03:16,847 Today, you can buy a 256 gigabyte card for the same price 43 00:03:16,847 --> 00:03:21,820 you would have paid for a 256 megabyte card ten years ago. 44 00:03:21,820 --> 00:03:26,390 The difference is the card you buy today stores 1,000 times the amount of data. 45 00:03:27,660 --> 00:03:31,356 In the next video, we will discuss the different types of data you will use when 46 00:03:31,356 --> 00:03:33,340 writing computer programs. 47 00:03:33,340 --> 00:03:33,840 Stay tuned.