Control structures determine the flow of execution within an application. A conditional statement can fork the execution down several paths or a loop can execute the same code several times until a condition is met.
An array is a way of storing multiple items and each item is associated to a number called the index. Each item can be accessed using the index value. Objects are usually associated to meaningful pieces of data which it can hold and manipulate.
A function contains a piece of code that needs to be executed several times from different parts of your application. A function optionally takes in arguments and returns an object or value as a result.