Docker bundles your app together with all the libraries and services it depends on into a package called a container, which can then be delivered as a single unit wherever it needs to go. It's kind of like a shipping container. Because shipping containers are all the same shape, they can all be handled the same way, regardless of what they contain. Likewise, no matter what your app's architecture looks like, bundling it into a Docker container allows your coworkers or customers to deploy it anywhere, without worrying about what its components look like.
Dockerfile -- Dockerfiles define how an app should be built/packaged and deployed with Docker. They are simple text files with a number of reference commands defined in the Docker documentation.
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