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Let's explore numbers and some basic math operations

### Update

At 3:22 of the video it is stated "5.5 raised to the negative 17th power". That should actually be: "5.5 times 10 raised to the negative 17th power".

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[MUSIC] 0:00 We've seen how Python can work with different types of information, right? 0:04 Like, for instance, so far we saw strings, and 0:08 we also saw how we could work a bit with numbers. 0:10 Now, those are definitely different types of information. 0:12 The more common way you'll hear this information referred to, 0:15 is with the term data. 0:19 So, these different types of data are called data types. 0:20 Earlier, I showed off a little bit of how to work with numbers, or 0:25 rather, numeric data. 0:28 Let's pop open the Python Shell and dive a little deeper into our exploration. 0:30 So let's go ahead and open up that REPL, so we do that by typing python. 0:35 I'm gonna scroll this up so we get some more space. 0:40 Okay, so whole numbers like 1 are called integers. 0:43 And they're whole because they aren't fractional, 0:50 meaning they don't have a decimal point. 0:52 So we can add 1 + 2. 0:54 And integers are also called ints for short, I-N-T, int. 0:57 And we can subtract using the minus key. 1:03 So you do 3- 2, and we'll see that we get 1. 1:07 Now, integers can also be negative. 1:11 So we can say 5- 7, and that will give us a -2. 1:13 And we can multiply by using the asterisk. 1:17 So 4 * 2 is 8. 1:20 A handy trick that I'd like to show while we're here is that there's a magic 1:23 variable in the REPL that always gets set to the result 1:26 of each one of these statements. 1:31 It's stored in the underscore, so, for instance, this 8 that was just returned, 1:33 it's actually in the variable underscore, 8. 1:37 You'll thank me later when you need that. 1:41 So let's take a look at what happens when we use a decimal point now. 1:43 So, let's add 4and we'll do one and a half, so 1.5. 1:48 Now note, that this returned 5.5. 1:55 This result is not an integer. 2:00 Integers are whole numbers. 2:03 This has a decimal point. 2:05 This is a different data type. 2:07 It's known as a floating-point number, or float for short. 2:08 Now, we always will get a float when we do division, 2:13 we'll always be returned to float. 2:16 So watch, this is 16 / 4, and you'll see that we got 4.0. 2:18 Floats are required when we need more precision, 2:25 that precision however comes with a need for some caution. 2:28 As you'll see here, you can do math with floats just like we were doing with ints. 2:32 So we can say 0.1 + 0.1, and we get 0.2. 2:40 But you need to be careful, here watch this example. 2:42 So Ill use the history we'll get back 0.1 + 0.1, 2:46 I'm gonna add one more, so you can chain values like that. 2:49 You can keep on adding. 2:53 So we get 0.1 + 0.1 + 0.1. 2:54 So that should be 0.3, and if we subtract 0.3, watch what happens. 2:57 And we get back 5 and some change, which is weird, right? 3:04 Cuz that should be 0. 3:09 But really, if you look at the end here, this is exponential, right here. 3:10 This is an exponent of -17, so this is actually 3:16 5.5 raised to the negative 17th power. 3:21 So, this is really 0 point and then 17 0s, and then a 5. 3:25 Which is more or less 0 right? 3:31 If you wanna bring a floating point number back to an integer, you can 3:33 round it to the closest integer using quite intuitively a function named round. 3:36 So we'll say round, kind of want to type that. 3:42 I can use the underscore, so we'll say that, so 3:45 that will be rounding of the 5.55, blah, blah, blah. 3:48 So here we go, 0, awesome. 3:51 So, I'm gonna do a Ctrl+L here, that's gonna bring us back up to the top. 3:55 Okay so here we go, so in case you've forgotten about rounding, 4:00 if the fraction portion is more than half, it will roll up. 4:03 So we'll say round (4.6), so that should round to 5, and it does. 4:07 And if its below half, so let's say 4.2 that will round down, awesome. 4:12 Now, these rounding errors have been a plot point in several movies 4:19 about computer programmers. 4:23 My favorites include Office Space, where the rounding errors were 4:24 sending fractions of a set to Samir and Michael Bolton's bank accounts. 4:27 And then the amazing Richard Pryor, 4:31 prior to that pulled a similarly clever stunt in Superman III. 4:33 Now this points out that floats in their precisions make them 4:37 not the most ideal type to deal with currency. 4:40 There are Python data types and various methods that help to make sure that we 4:43 don't let this movie plot disaster happen to the software you create. 4:46 There's more in the theacher's notes. 4:50 And you might remember from your math class, whenever that might have been, but 4:52 there is an order of operations, and that holds true here too. 4:57 So, we've got this PEMDAS, or Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally, 5:00 that's what my junior high maths teacher used to say. 5:07 So, shout out to Mr. Beetle, 5:12 that one's been stuck in my head since seventh grade. 5:15 The operations work in that order. 5:22 Now first it's any P which is parenthesis, then it's E for 5:23 exponents, M for multiplication, then division, addition, subtraction. 5:28 Now there's more in the teacher's notes if you feel like you need a refresher. 5:33 Let's just go ahead and create some random equation. 5:36 Let's do 10- 3 * 5 + 8. 5:39 So here, using the order of operations, the multiplication would happen first, 5:46 right? 5:51 So there's no parentheses, there's no exponents. 5:51 There is an M, so that would happen first. 5:54 And then division, and then addition, and subtraction. 5:56 So, what we have here is we have 15, and 5:59 we have 10- 15, -5, + 8 is 3. 6:03 Awesome. 6:07 But that's probably not that obvious if you don't remember the rules. 6:08 So it's best to just be explicit in what you want and Python lets you do that. 6:13 So, you can just use parenthesis to drip your ordering. 6:17 Like let's say that we actually wanted to have 10- 3 first, so 6:21 I can put that in paren's, and then I wanted to multiply 5 plus 8. 6:25 That way we don't need to, I think that's more clear, right? 6:30 So we have (10- 3), we 7 times (5 + 8), is 13. 6:33 I'm gonna go ahead and let that do it, it should be somewhere around 91. 6:39 There we go, and you can see how that reads more clear, right? 6:43 Especially the more time that you spent away not doing math like this. 6:46 Like for instance, over the weekend, I was talking with my dad's sister and 6:50 she was saying how she forgot a bunch of this math knowledge. 6:55 So I think that she's a really great example of how it would help her if you 6:58 were just more explicit with your mathematical statements. 7:01 I guess what I'm trying to say here is Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally, 7:04 it's been a while for her. 7:08 Bam, math teacher joke, Mr. Beattle be so proud. 7:10 Integers and floats working together is totally convenient 7:13 because the types understand how to work together. 7:17 But what happens if you try to do math operations with data types that 7:20 just don't get each other? 7:23 Well, we're here in the REPL, the place built for exploration. 7:25 So let's just quench our thirst for knowledge by giving it a try. 7:28 We're not gonna break anything. 7:32 So, let's take the string apple. 7:33 And say "apple, and I wanna, that's not good. 7:37 We want "apple", and then I want to add 2 to that. 7:43 So we get a TypeError, and it must be a string, not an int. 7:48 And that's true, even if the string looks like a number. 7:53 So if we have "11" + 2. 7:56 That's also a TypeError. 8:00 Now if you remember, our input function always returns a string. 8:02 I sense that that's gonna be a problem, because I'm sure eventually we're gonna 8:07 want to prompt a user for a number, but we're gonna get a string back. 8:10 Gonna CTRL+L to get back up there. 8:15 There is a handy built-in function that lets you change or 8:17 coerce into a different type. 8:21 So if we want an integer, we just pass it our string like this. 8:23 So we say int, and we pass in our string. 8:27 So our string 11. 8:30 We'll come back, and you'll see now it's an int. 8:31 And there's also one for floats. 8:35 So if we could take a float and we can give it a string of 11, 8:36 and you'll see it comes back with 11.0. 8:39 Awesome, and you can also convert an existing integer to a float. 8:42 So we'll just give it an 11 there. 8:46 Just straight 11 and a number. 8:48 That's an integer, right? 8:49 And now it becomes 11.0, and, of course, there's the reverse. 8:51 So if I say int(11.9), you'll see that we get back 11. 8:54 Now note, this didn't round. 9:01 If it did round, it would be 12 right? 9:03 It would round up. 9:05 What this type of coercion does is it just forgets 9:06 everything after the decimal point. 9:09 Which might be handy if you only want to work with integers. 9:11 You can do something similar with what's known as the division shortcut. 9:15 Remember, division was a single forward slash. 9:19 So, if we said 23 / 3, and also we get 7.6 and some change, right? 9:22 That's a float, but if we use the double forward slashes. 9:28 So, if we say 23 // 3, we'll get just the integer portion. 9:31 So, we'll get back 7, and if you wanted to get the remainder in integer form, 9:37 you can do that too using what is known as the modulus. 9:42 So we'll say 23 % 3. 9:46 So, 3 goes in to 23 7 times, 9:51 and 3 times 7 is 21, right? 9:56 So, 23 minus 21 is our answer too. 10:00 So, that's remainder math. 10:02 More on the teacher's notes. 10:04 That was a lot, right? 10:09 Especially if you're like my aunt Sally and 10:10 it's been a while since your last math session. 10:12 Now, don't fear though, 10:14 a common misconception is that there is a ton of math in all of programming. 10:15 No, don't get me wrong, 10:19 there are defintely heavy calculations requiring a few business sectors. 10:20 But you'll ramp up to those calculations as you need them. 10:24 Now if you're working on a shopping cart application, maybe you'll need some basic 10:28 arithmetic like quantity multiplied by the price of the product, and 10:32 then calculate tax and add a shipping charge. 10:35 But those formulas, they're already established and 10:38 you just need to make the code run through the proper equations. 10:40 If this all feels overwhelming, don't worry. 10:44 I'm gonna be walking you through some practical math examples in this course. 10:47 You got this. 10:50 Why don't we take a well deserved break and then swing back and 10:52 take a look at our next type, strings. 10:55

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