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PHP Object-Oriented PHP Basics Building a Collection Filtering

Obayanju Damilare
Obayanju Damilare
3,383 Points

Error in allrecipes class

when I execute the cookbook class, nothing shows. Also, when I execute the allrecipes class, it gives an error "Fatal error: Class 'Recipe' not found in C:\xampp\htdocs\OOP-PHP\inc\allrecipes.php on line 33 PHP Fatal error: Class 'Recipe' not found in C:\xampp\htdocs\OOP-PHP\inc\allrecipes.php on line 33"

These are my codes: allrecipes.php

 * Included Recipes
 ** By Alena Holligan **
 * I use whole wheat pastry flour or whole wheat white flour
 * in all my recipes, but feel free to use whatever you like
 * $lemon_chicken
 * $granola_muffins
 * $belgian_waffles
 * $pepper_casserole
 * $lasagna
 ** By Ken Alger **
 * $dried_mushroom_ragout
 * $rabbit_catalan
 * $grilled_salmon_with_fennel
 * $pistachio_duck
 * $chili_pork
 * $crab_cakes
 * $beef_medallions
 * $silver_dollar_cakes
 * $french_toast
 * $corn_beef_hash
 * $granola
 * $spicy_omelette
 * $scones
$lemon_chicken = new Recipe("Italian Lemon Chicken");

$lemon_chicken->addIngredient("Pasta", 1, "lb");
$lemon_chicken->addIngredient("Chicken Breast", 2, "lb");
$lemon_chicken->addIngredient("olive oil", .5, "Cup");
$lemon_chicken->addIngredient("garlic, chopped", 2, "tbsp");
$lemon_chicken->addIngredient("lemon juice", .25, "Cup");
$lemon_chicken->addIngredient("sugar", .5, "tsp");
$lemon_chicken->addIngredient("parsley", 2, "tsp");
$lemon_chicken->addIngredient("oregano", 2, "tsp");
$lemon_chicken->addIngredient("basil", 1, "tbsp");
$lemon_chicken->addIngredient("parmesian cheese to taste");

$lemon_chicken->addInstruction("Cook pasta according to package directions");
$lemon_chicken->addInstruction("In a large skillet on medium high heat, saute garlic in olive oil for 3 minutes. Cut chicken into bite sized pieces.");
$lemon_chicken->addInstruction("Add additional items to sauce pan and cover for 5 minutes or untill chicken is almost completely white.");
$lemon_chicken->addInstruction("Remove lid and cook until reduced to a thick sauce.");
$lemon_chicken->addInstruction("Serve over pasta with parmesian cheese to taste");

$lemon_chicken->setYield("6 Servings");
$lemon_chicken->addTag("Main Dish", "Dinner");

$granola_muffins = new Recipe("Granola Muffins");

$granola_muffins->addIngredient("egg", 2);
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("sugar", .25, "Cup");
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("oil", .5, "Cup");
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("milk", 1, "Cup");
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("vanilla", 1, "tsp");
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("white vinegar", .5, "tsp");
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("granola", 2, "Cup");
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("flour", 1, "Cup");
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("instant protein", 4, "tbsp");
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("baking powder", 2, "tsp");
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("cinnamon", 2, "tsp");
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("baking soda", .5, "tsp");
$granola_muffins->addIngredient("salt", .5, "tsp");

$granola_muffins->addInstruction("In a large bowl, combine wet items");
$granola_muffins->addInstruction("In a smaller bowl, dry items");
$granola_muffins->addInstruction("Combine wet and dry mixtures and fold together gently until just mixed. Spoon into a sprayed muffin pan. Sprinkle each muffin top with granola if desired. Bake at 400 for 15 to 20 minutes. Remove from pan and cool on rack.");
$granola_muffins->addInstruction("*An hour before you want to make these (or at least a half hour) mix your milk of choice with the white vinegar and allow it to \"sour\" at room temperature.");

$granola_muffins->setYield("12 large muffins.");
$granola_muffins->addTag("breakfast, snack, quick bread");/**/

$belgian_waffles = new Recipe("Belgian Waffles");

$belgian_waffles->addIngredient("Egg", 2);
$belgian_waffles->addIngredient("Butter", 1, "Cup");
$belgian_waffles->addIngredient("sugar", .5, "Cup");
$belgian_waffles->addIngredient("milk", 1.5, "cup");
$belgian_waffles->addIngredient("vanilla", 2, "tsp");
$belgian_waffles->addIngredient("flour", 2, "cup");
$belgian_waffles->addIngredient("baking powder", 1, "tbsp");

$belgian_waffles->addInstruction("Separate eggs. Whip egg whites until stiff peaks form. Set asside.");
$belgian_waffles->addInstruction("Melt butter, and combine with sugar. Add egg yokes and mix well.");
$belgian_waffles->addInstruction("Add milk and vanilla and mix well.");
$belgian_waffles->addInstruction("Add flour and sugar until just combined. ");
$belgian_waffles->addInstruction("Fold in egg whites.");
$belgian_waffles->addInstruction("Follow instructions on waffle maker or add .5 cup of batter to waffle iron and cook for 4 minutes.");

$belgian_waffles->setYield("10 waffles");
$belgian_waffles->setSource("Alena Holligan");
$belgian_waffles->addTag("breakfast, quick bread");

$pepper_casserole = new Recipe("Ground Turkey Pepper Casserole");

$pepper_casserole->addIngredient("bell peppers", 6);
$pepper_casserole->addIngredient("Ground Turkey", 1.5, "lb");
$pepper_casserole->addIngredient("Garlic cloves", 2);
$pepper_casserole->addIngredient("onion", 1);
$pepper_casserole->addIngredient("rice, cooked", 2, "cup");
$pepper_casserole->addIngredient("salt", 1, "tsp");
$pepper_casserole->addIngredient("tomato sauce", 15, "oz");
$pepper_casserole->addIngredient("Cheddar Cheese", 8, "oz");

$pepper_casserole->addInstruction("Cut peppers into bite sized pieces. In 4-quart pan, add enough water to cover peppers. Heat to boiling; add peppers. Cook about 4 minutes; drain.");
$pepper_casserole->addInstruction("In 10-inch skillet, cook turkey, garlic and onion over medium heat 8 to 10 minutes, stirring occasionally, until beef is brown; drain.");
$pepper_casserole->addInstruction("Stir in cooked rice, salt and 1 cup of the tomato sauce; cook until hot.");
$pepper_casserole->addInstruction("Pre-heat oven to 350°F.");
$pepper_casserole->addInstruction("Add turky and rice mixture to a 9x13in baking dish. Spread peppers over the rix mixture and poor the remaining tomato sauce over peppers.");
$pepper_casserole->addInstruction("Cover tightly with foil. Bake 10 minutes. Uncover and Sprinkle with cheese. Bake about 10 minutes longer or until peppers are tender and cheese is melted.");

$pepper_casserole->setYield("8 servings");
$pepper_casserole->setSource("Alena Holligan");

$lasagna = new Recipe("Lasagna");

$lasagna->addIngredient("Lasagna Noodles", 1, "lb");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Sweet Italian Sausage", 1, "lb");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Hot Italian Sausage", 1, "lb");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Sweet Onion", 2);
$lasagna->addIngredient("Garlic, chopped", 4, "tbsp");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Tomato Sauce", 64, "oz");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Sugar", 1, "tsp");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Oregano", 2, "tbsp");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Parsley", 2, "tbsp");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Basil", 4, "tbsp");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Salt & Pepper to taste");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Ricotta Cheese", 8, "oz");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Mozzarella Cheese", 16, "oz");
$lasagna->addIngredient("Parmesan cheese, grated", .75, "cup");

$lasagna->addInstruction("In a large skillet, brown sausage over medium high heat, with onions and garlic.");
$lasagna->addInstruction("In a large bowl combine tomato sauce, sugar, seasonings, ricotta cheese and sausage mixture. Mix until ricotta cheese is smooth.");
$lasagna->addInstruction("Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C).");
$lasagna->addInstruction("To assemble, spread 1 1/2 cups of sauce mixture in the bottom of a 9x13 inch baking dish. Arrange UNCOOKED noodles over sauce. Spread with a third of the remaining sauce mixture. Top with a third of the gratted mozzarella cheese. Sprinkle with 1/4 cup Parmesan cheese. Repeat layers of noodles, sauce mixture and cheese 2 more times. Cover with foil: to prevent sticking, either spray foil with cooking spray, or make sure the foil does not touch the cheese.");
$lasagna->addInstruction("Bake in preheated oven for 60 minutes. Remove foil, and bake an additional 15 minutes. Cool for 15 minutes before serving.");

$lasagna->setYield("12 servings");
$lasagna->setSource("Alena Holligan");

//Ken Alger
$dried_mushroom_ragout = new Recipe("Dried Mushroom Ragout");

$dried_mushroom_ragout->addIngredient("Pearl Onion", 11, "oz");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addIngredient("Assorted Dried Mushrooms (morels, black fungus, shiitake", 1.3, "oz");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addIngredient("Butter", 2, "oz");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addIngredient("Olive Oil", 2, "tsp");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addIngredient("Salt & Pepper to taste");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addIngredient("Sour Cream", 3.5, "oz");

$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Trim ends off pearl onions.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Cover with boiling water and let stand for one minute.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Drain and slip off skins.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Cook the onions in boiling water for 5 minutes.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Drain well and spread out on dry paper towels.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Cover the mushrooms generously with hot water and let soak for thirty minutes.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Pick out the mushrooms.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Strain water through a sieve lined with a double layer of cheesecloth.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Add enough water to make 2 cups.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Reserve liquid.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Fry the mushrooms gently in butter and oil for two minutes.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Add the onions, salt, pepper, and soaking liquid from the mushrooms.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Simmer until virtually all the liquid has evaporated.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Stir in the sour cream and simmer for a couple of minutes longer until slightly reduced.");
$dried_mushroom_ragout->addInstruction("Taste and adjust the seasoning and serve.");

$dried_mushroom_ragout->setYield("5, 4 ounce servings.");

$dried_mushroom_ragout->setSource("Alice Kingsleigh");


$rabbit_catalan = new Recipe("Rabbit Catalan");

$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Raisins", 1.5, "oz");
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Rabbit", 14, "oz");
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Seasoned flour");
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Olive Oil", 4.5, "tsp");
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Onions", .75);
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Tomatoes, skinned, liquidized, and strained", 12, "oz");
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Rabbit stock", 7.5, "oz");
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Rosemary spring", 1);
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Bay leaf", .5);
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Parsley, finely chopped", 1.5, "tbsp");
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Salt & Pepper to taste");
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Garlic cloves", 2);
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Blanched almonds", 10);
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Hazlenuts", 10);
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Saffron threads", .25, "tsp");
$rabbit_catalan->addIngredient("Xocolata a la pedra", .5, "oz");

$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("Cover the raisins with water and soak 20 minutes.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("Coat the rabbit in the seasoned flour and brown in olive oil. Set aside.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("In the same oil, saute the onion until tender and golden.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("Add the tomatoes, stock, rosemary, bay leaf, half of the parsley, salt and pepper.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("Simmer gently roughly five minutes.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("Return the rabbit to the pan, cover, and simmer a further 20 minutes.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("Turn the rabbit pieces occasionally, adding additional stock if necessary.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("White the rabbit is simmering, mix the remaining parsley with the garlic (chopped), almonds, hazelnuts, affron, and chocolate.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("Process in a food processor until smooth.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("Gradually work in 6.5 ounces of sauce from the rabbit.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("Spoon this mixture over the rabbit, add the raisins, drained, and stir into the mix.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("Cover again and continue simmering until the rabbit is done.");
$rabbit_catalan->addInstruction("Taste and adjust seasoning.");

$rabbit_catalan->setYield("4, 7 ounce servings.");

$rabbit_catalan->setSource("Elmer Fudd");


$grilled_salmon_with_fennel = new Recipe("Grilled Salmon with Fennel");

$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addIngredient("Olive Oil", 2, "tsp");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addIngredient("White onion, finely chopped", 1.25, "cup");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addIngredient("Large fennel bulbs, finely chopped", 1.25, "cup");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addIngredient("Orange liquor", .25, "oz");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addIngredient("Salt and Pepper to taste");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addIngredient("Fresh parsley, finely chopped", 2.5, "tbsp");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addIngredient("Fennel leaves, finely chopped", 5, "tsp");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addIngredient("Salmon steaks, 5 ounces each", 5);
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addIngredient("Vegetable Oil Spray");

$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addInstruction("Heat grill to medium-hot.");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addInstruction("For the sauce, briefly heat the olive oil in a large skillet.");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addInstruction("Add the onions and saute until they soften.");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addInstruction("Add the fennel bulb, orange liquor, salt, and pepper.");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addInstruction("Saute until the vegetables are soft.");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addInstruction("Turn off the heat and cover pan to keep warm.");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addInstruction("Stir in parsley and fennel leaves just prior to service.");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addInstruction("Season the salmon with salt and pepper and then spray with the vegetable oil.");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addInstruction("Place on grill.");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addInstruction("Grill for approximately five minutes, then turn and grill for five minutes on the second side or until the fish just starts to flake.");
$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->addInstruction("Serve fish over sauce.");

$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->setYield("4, 6 ounce servings");

$grilled_salmon_with_fennel->setSource("Lord Drinian");


$pistachio_duck = new Recipe("Duck Breast in Pistachio Crust");

$pistachio_duck->addIngredient("Duck Breast", 1);
$pistachio_duck->addIngredient("Pistachios, finely chopped", 1.5, "tbsp");
$pistachio_duck->addIngredient("Wild Rice, cooked", 1/3, "cup");
$pistachio_duck->addIngredient("White Rice, cooked", 1/3, "cup");
$pistachio_duck->addIngredient("Egg plant", 1/4);
$pistachio_duck->addIngredient("Asparagus spear", 1);
$pistachio_duck->addIngredient("Duck stock", 8, "oz");
$pistachio_duck->addIngredient("Port wine", .5, "oz");
$pistachio_duck->addIngredient("Dried cranberries", 10);
$pistachio_duck->addIngredient("Shallots, minced", 1, "tsp");

$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("Press pistachios into duck breast.");
$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("Dry fry the breast to give it color, finish in a 350 F oven.");
$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("With cooked rices, combine together along with five of the cranberries that have been allowed to soak in the duck stock long enough to reconstitute.");
$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("Cut egg plant into 1/4 inch slices");
$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("Grill over medium high heat.");
$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("Steam the one asparagus spear until al dente.");
$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("For the sauce, strain any fat off the duck stock.");
$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("Dry saute the shallots just until they start to color.");
$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("Add 2 ounces stock and deglaze the pan.");
$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("Add remaining duck stock, port wine, and the other five reconstituted cranberries and reduce until thickend.");
$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("Serve the eggplant sliced and fanned over a bed of the rice.");
$pistachio_duck->addInstruction("Slice the pistachio crusted duck breast over a pool of cranberry port sauce.");

$pistachio_duck->setYield("1 serving");

$pistachio_duck->setSource("S.J. Sharkie");


$chili_pork = new Recipe("Pan seared pork tenderloin rolled in a chili peppercrust");

$chili_pork->addIngredient("Pork tenderloin", 6);
$chili_pork->addIngredient("Dry chilis, finely ground", 2, "cup");
$chili_pork->addIngredient("Olive oil", 1, "cup");
$chili_pork->addIngredient("Green chilis, roasted", 10);
$chili_pork->addIngredient("Garlic, chopped", 2, "tsp");
$chili_pork->addIngredient("Cilantro", 3, "tbsp");
$chili_pork->addIngredient("Chicken stock", 2, "cup");
$chili_pork->addIngredient("Lime Juice", 3, "tbsp");
$chili_pork->addIngredient("Red onion, diced", 3, "tbsp");
$chili_pork->addIngredient("Olive oil", 2, "tbsp");

$chili_pork->addInstruction("Roll the tenderloins in the ground chili's.");
$chili_pork->addInstruction("Heat a saute pan, add a little olive oil and quickly brown tenderloins.");
$chili_pork->addInstruction("Remove from saute pan an dplace in a 350 F oven for about six minutes.");
$chili_pork->addInstruction("Remove from oven and keep warm until ready to serve.");
$chili_pork->addInstruction("For the sauce, clean the chili peppers after roasting, and dice them.");
$chili_pork->addInstruction("Heat a small pot, add olive oil, red onion, roasted garlic, and chili's.");
$chili_pork->addInstruction("Saute quickly until onion and garlic soften.");
$chili_pork->addInstruction("Add the chicken stock and lime juice and simmer for four minutes.");
$chili_pork->addInstruction("Place mixture into a blender and puree until smooth.");
$chili_pork->addInstruction("Add cilantro before serving with the sliced pork.");

$chili_pork->setYield("12 portions");

$chili_pork->setSource("B.B. Wolf");


$crab_cakes = new Recipe("Crab Cakes");

$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Bell peppers, finely diced", 2, "cup");
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Onion, finely diced", .5);
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Celery, finely diced", 2, "cup");
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Fresh green chili, finely diced", 3);
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Garlic cloves", 3);
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Vegetable oil", .5, "cup");
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Cilantro", 2, "tbsp");
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Flour", 1, "cup");
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Eggs, whipped", 2);
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Milk, hot", 1, "cup");
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Dijon Mustard", .25, "cup");
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Salt and Pepper to taste");
$crab_cakes->addIngredient("Crab meat", 2.5, "lb");

$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Heat large saute pan, add the vegetable oil.");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Add vegetables and cook over medium heat until soft.");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Add flour and stir until smooth.");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Add milk, stir to make a very smooth mixture without lumps.");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Remove from heat and transfer to a large bowl.");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Add mustard and mix well.");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Add eggs and mix well.");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Add minced garlic, herbs, season to taste and let cool.");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Drain crab meat until dry.");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Add to mixture and form 1 1/2 ounce portions.");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Shape into rounds and place in refrigerator until time to prepare.");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("To prepare for service, saute rounds until GBD (Golden Brown & Delicious).");
$crab_cakes->addInstruction("Serve with a fresh fruit salsa and creme fraiche.");

$crab_cakes->setYield("30 cakes");

$crab_cakes->setSource("S. Bob");


$beef_medallions = new Recipe("Beef Medallions with Ruby Port Sauce");

$beef_medallions->addIngredient("Beef medallions, 2 ounces", 8);
$beef_medallions->addIngredient("Shallots", 1, "tbsp");
$beef_medallions->addIngredient("Ruby Port", 3, "oz");
$beef_medallions->addIngredient("Red wine", 2, "oz");
$beef_medallions->addIngredient("Thyme sprig", 1);
$beef_medallions->addIngredient("Black peppercorns", 1, "tsp");
$beef_medallions->addIngredient("Bay leaf", 1);
$beef_medallions->addIngredient("Demi-glace or meat glaze", 5, "oz");
$beef_medallions->addIngredient("Garlic, chopped", 1, "tsp");
$beef_medallions->addIngredient("Butter", 1, "tsp");

$beef_medallions->addInstruction("Pan sear the medallions to carmelize the exterior, finish in oven at 350 F to an internal temperature of 145 F.");
$beef_medallions->addInstruction("Reduce the shallots, port, red wine, thyme, peppercorns, and bay leaf by half.");
$beef_medallions->addInstruction("Add demi-glace and reduce.");
$beef_medallions->addInstruction("Strain sauce, add roasted garlic and finish with butter.");
$beef_medallions->addInstruction("Serve two ounces of sauce with each serving of two medallions.");

$beef_medallions->setYield("4 servings");

$beef_medallions->setSource("P. Buffay");


$silver_dollar_cakes = new Recipe("Silver Dollar Pancakes");

$silver_dollar_cakes->addIngredient("Eggs", 4);
$silver_dollar_cakes->addIngredient("Salt", .5, "tsp");
$silver_dollar_cakes->addIngredient("Baking soda", .5, "tsp");
$silver_dollar_cakes->addIngredient("Cake flour", .25, "cup");
$silver_dollar_cakes->addIngredient("Sour cream", 2, "cup");
$silver_dollar_cakes->addIngredient("Sugar", 3, "tbsp");

$silver_dollar_cakes->addInstruction("Put eggs in bowl and blend thouroughly.");
$silver_dollar_cakes->addInstruction("Add the salt, baking soda, flour, sour cream, and sugar. Mix well.");
$silver_dollar_cakes->addInstruction("These cakes are very delicate and require a soft touch when turning.");
$silver_dollar_cakes->addInstruction("It is recommended to use only the tip of the spatula and do not attempt to 'flip' the entire cake.");
$silver_dollar_cakes->addInstruction("Instead, use a very gentle lift, raise the cake by 1/3 the surface area and fold them over to finish cooking.");
$silver_dollar_cakes->addInstruction("Serve warm.");

$silver_dollar_cakes->setYield("55 dollar size cakes");

$silver_dollar_cakes->setSource("General Bidwell");


$french_toast = new Recipe("French Toast");

$french_toast->addIngredient("Whole eggs", 1, "quart");
$french_toast->addIngredient("Milk", 1, "cup");
$french_toast->addIngredient("Cinnamon", .5, "tsp");
$french_toast->addIngredient("Nutmeg", .25, "tsp");
$french_toast->addIngredient("Zest of 1 lemon (blanched)", 1);
$french_toast->addIngredient("Cornflakes, coarsely crushed", 6, "cup");
$french_toast->addIngredient("Bread, sliced 1 inch thick", 24);
$french_toast->addIngredient("Butter", .25, "cup");

$french_toast->addInstruction("Whisk together eggs, milk, cinnamon, nutmeg and lemon zest.");
$french_toast->addInstruction("Put cornflakes into a separate shallow dish.");
$french_toast->addInstruction("Dip bread in egg mixture, soak on each side for ten seconds and then coat with cornflakes.");
$french_toast->addInstruction("Heat butter in a non-stick skillet over medium heat.");
$french_toast->addInstruction("Cook the bread in the pan, turning once, until both sides are GBD (Golden brown & delicious)");
$french_toast->addInstruction("Serve warm with choice of toppings.");

$french_toast->setYield("12 servings");

$french_toast->setSource("Rene Francois Artois");


$corn_beef_hash = new Recipe("Corn Beef Hash");

$corn_beef_hash->addIngredient("Cornbeef, small diced", 2, "lb");
$corn_beef_hash->addIngredient("Onion, small diced", 1);
$corn_beef_hash->addIngredient("Bell peppers, small diced", 4);
$corn_beef_hash->addIngredient("Potatoes, cooked, small diced", 6);

$corn_beef_hash->addInstruction("Saute the onion and bell pepper.");
$corn_beef_hash->addInstruction("Add corn beef, mix and saute for 2 minutes.");
$corn_beef_hash->addInstruction("Add potatoes, mix and saute for 2 minutes.");
$corn_beef_hash->addInstruction("Salt and pepper to taste.");
$corn_beef_hash->addInstruction("Serve warm.");

$corn_beef_hash->setYield("16, 4 ounce servings.");

$corn_beef_hash->setSource("Zygmund Zyzzyx");


$granola = new Recipe("Granola");

$granola->addIngredient("Rolled oats", 1, "quart");
$granola->addIngredient("Rolled wheat", 1, "cup");
$granola->addIngredient("Rolled rye", 1, "cup");
$granola->addIngredient("Rolled barley", 1, "cup");
$granola->addIngredient("Nutmeg", 1, "tsp");
$granola->addIngredient("Cinnamon", .5, "tsp");
$granola->addIngredient("Salt", .125, "tsp");
$granola->addIngredient("Honey", 1.25, "cup");
$granola->addIngredient("Vegetable oil", .75, "cup");
$granola->addIngredient("Almonds", 1.5, "cup");
$granola->addIngredient("Golden raisins", 1, "cup");

$granola->addInstruction("Mix grains and spices together.");
$granola->addInstruction("Combine honey and oil together until completely combined.");
$granola->addInstruction("Blend the grain mixture in with the honey mixture.");
$granola->addInstruction("Spread on a sheet pan and toast in oven at 300 F for approxmiately 7 minutes.");
$granola->addInstruction("Remove from oven and while cooling add in rasisns.");
$granola->addInstruction("Store in an air tight container.");

$granola->setYield("1 sheet pan");

$granola->setSource("H. Crowell");


$spicy_omelette = new Recipe("Spicy Omelette");

$spicy_omelette->addIngredient("Butter", 2, "tbsp");
$spicy_omelette->addIngredient("Green chili pepper, seeded & diced", 2);
$spicy_omelette->addIngredient("Kielbasa sausage", 4, "oz");
$spicy_omelette->addIngredient("Onion, diced", 3, "tbsp");
$spicy_omelette->addIngredient("Tomato concasse", 2, "tbsp");
$spicy_omelette->addIngredient("Eggs, beaten", 3);
$spicy_omelette->addIngredient("Pepper-Jack cheese, shredded", 3, "tbsp");

$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Preheat a nonstick omelette pan and melt 1 Tbsp. butter in the pan.");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Add the chili pepper, sausage, and onion.");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Saute until the vegetables start to soften and the sausage is lightly browned.");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Add the tomato and cook to heat through (about 20 seconds)");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Transfer mixture to a bowl and cover to keep warm.");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Melt the additional 1 Tbsp. butter. ");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Add the eggs and cook, without stirring, for about two minutes.");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Use a high temperature spatula to lift the edges allowing the uncooked egg to flow beneath the cooked portion.");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Cook until the eggs are almost set and then flip the omelette in the pan.");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Cook for 45 seconds to set eggs and then flip the omelette again.");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Arrange the sausage mixture and then the cheese in the center of the omelette.");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Tri-fold the eggs over the mixture and 'roll' the omlette seam side down");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Cook an additional 30 seconds to finish cooking the eggs and to melt the cheese");
$spicy_omelette->addInstruction("Slide the omelette onto a plate, top with extra cheese. Serve hot");

$spicy_omelette->setYield("1 serving");

$spicy_omelette->setSource("S. Gonzales");


$scones = new Recipe("Orange Cranberry Scones");

$scones->addIngredient("All purpose flour", 3, "cup");
$scones->addIngredient("Sugar", .333, "cup");
$scones->addIngredient("Baking powder", 2.5, "tsp");
$scones->addIngredient("Salt", 1, "tsp");
$scones->addIngredient("Baking soda", .5, "tsp");
$scones->addIngredient("Orange zest", 1, "tbsp");
$scones->addIngredient("Butter, unsalted & chilled, 1/2 pieces", .75, "cup");
$scones->addIngredient("Cranberries, dried", .75, "cup");
$scones->addIngredient("Heavy cream, cold", 1, "cup");
$scones->addIngredient("Confectioner's sugar", .5, "cup");
$scones->addIngredient("Orange juice, freshly squeezed", 4, "tsp");

$scones->addInstruction("Preheat oven to 400 F.");
$scones->addInstruction("Line a baking sheet with parchment paper.");
$scones->addInstruction("Sift together dry ingredients into a large bowl.");
$scones->addInstruction("Mix in orange zest.");
$scones->addInstruction("Add butter and cut into dry ingredients until the mixture resembles coarse meal.");
$scones->addInstruction("Mix in dried cranberries.");
$scones->addInstruction("Gradually add cream until moist clumbs form.");
$scones->addInstruction("Move dough to a lightly floured work surface and knead about four turns to bind the dough.");
$scones->addInstruction("Form dough into a round 1 inch thick.");
$scones->addInstruction("Cut into 10 pieces and transfer to baking sheet.");
$scones->addInstruction("Bake in oven until the tops are golden brown, approximately 25 minutes.");
$scones->addInstruction("Remove from oven and let cool on the baking sheet for 10 minutes.");
$scones->addInstruction("Whisk together the confectioner's sugar and orange juice.");
$scones->addInstruction("Lightly drizzle over the scones while still warm.");

$scones->setYield("10 scones");

$scones->setSource("Beryl Patmore");



include "classes/recipes.php";
include "classes/render.php";
include "classes/recipecollection.php";
include "inc/allrecipes.php";

$cookbook = new RecipeCollection("Treehouse Recipes");

$breakfast = new RecipeCollection("Favorite Breakfasts");
foreach ($cookbook->filterByTag("breakfast") as $recipe) {

echo Render::listRecipes($breakfast->getRecipeTitles());
//echo Render::displayRecipe($belgian_waffles);

/*$recipe1 = new Recipe("my first recipe");
$recipe1->setSource = 'Olaniran';
$recipe1->addIngriedient("egg", 1);
$recipe1->addIngriedient("flour", 2 , "cup");

$recipe2 = new Recipe(" my second Recipe");
$recipe2->setSource = "Betty Crocker";

$recipe1->addInstruction("This is my first instruction");
$recipe1->addInstruction("This is my second instruction");

$recipe1->addTag("Main Course");

$recipe1->setYield("6 servings");
//echo $recipe1->title;//this wont work because title is private

echo $recipe1;
echo new Render();



//this class is responsible for describing the recipe, adding and retrieving data
//about the recipe are its main concerns
class Recipe{

    //by using private, we prevent objects from accessing the title directly
    //because we want objects to pass through the "setTitle" method so we can change
    //the title to uppercase. If "$title" is public, then we are at the mercy of
    //objects that set the title to whatever case.
    private $title;
    private $ingredients = array();
    private $instructions = array();
    private $yield;
    private $tag = array();
    private $source = 'Obayanju Damilare';

    private $measurements = array(
        "fl oz",

    //this method is called at the time an object is constructed or created
    public function __construct($title = null){

    public function __toString(){
        $output = "You are calling a " . __CLASS__ . " object with the title \"";
        $output .= $this->getTitle() . "\"";
        $output .= "\nIt is stored in " . basename(__FILE__) . " at " . __DIR__ . ".";
        $output .= "This display is from line " . __LINE__ . " in method ". __METHOD__;
        $output .= "\nThe following methods are available for objects of this class: \n";
        $output .= implode("\n", get_class_methods(__CLASS__));
        return $output;

    public function setTitle($title){
        //the keyword "this" gives us access to the objects properties;
        //for example, in line 33, because we used "this" we have access
        //to $recipe1's properties like source. Without "this" keyword, setTitle
        //wont be able to access any objects property and no object will have access
        //to the method "setTitle"
        if (empty($title)) {
            $this->title = null;
        } else {
            $this->title = ucwords($title);

    //getters and setters work together to access private properties
    public function getTitle(){
        return $this->title;

    //null is added to both amount and measure because they are not required
    public function addIngredient($item, $amount = null, $measure = null){
        if ($amount != null && !is_float($amount) && !is_int($amount)) {
            exit("The amount entered must be a float: " . gettype($amount) . " $amount given");
        if ($measure != null && !in_array(strtolower($measure), $this->measurements)) {
            exit("Please enter a valid measurement: " . implode(", ", $this->measurements));
        $this->ingredients[] = array(
            "item" => ucwords($item),
            "amount" => $amount,
            "measure" => strtolower($measure)

    public function getIngredients(){
        return $this->ingredients;

    public function addInstruction($string){
        $this->instructions[] = $string;

    public function getInstructions(){
        return $this->instructions;

    public function addTag($tag){
        $this->tag[] = strtolower($tag);

    public function getTags(){
        return $this->tag;

    public function setYield($yield){
        $this->yield = $yield;

    public function getYield(){
        return $this->yield;

    public function setSource($source){
        $this->source = ucwords($source);

    public function getSource(){
        return $this->source;
Mochammad Rezza
Mochammad Rezza
4,778 Points
  1. when I execute the cookbook class, nothing shows. check your function listRecipes in render.php, it's exist and normal?

  2. Also, when I execute the allrecipes class, it gives an error "Fatal error: Class 'Recipe' not found in C:\xampp\htdocs\OOP-PHP\inc\allrecipes.php on line 33 PHP Fatal error: Class 'Recipe' not found in C:\xampp\htdocs\OOP-PHP\inc\allrecipes.php on line 33"

It's normal, but don't execute in allrecipes.php because you don't have class Recipe on there. You need class Recipe to create new object Recipe on line 33. If you want to execute, please execute on cookbook.php

1 Answer

The cookbook.php is the one you should be executing.
The important files are all in render.php which you have not included.

When I add my own render.php and recipecollection.php to your files above and execute the cookbook.php I get the following

$ php cookbook.php
Corn Beef Hash
French Toast
Orange Cranberry Scones
Silver Dollar Pancakes
Spicy Omelette

I can look again if you upload your code for those files. I would say it's likely a problem in your recipecollection.php