JavaScript Getting Started With ES2015 Defining Variables With let and const Review let and const

How to create variables scoped to a function in JavaScript?

How does Let Var And Const all play a role in declaring variables in JavaScript? I find this concept hard to grasp for me personally so I just need that extra clarification to help me understand it better.

1 Answer

Clayton Perszyk
Clayton Perszyk
Treehouse Moderator 46,156 Points

Hey Igor,

I'll try to explain each declaration.

var: unless var is declared in a function it will have global scope, otherwise it will be scoped to the function, i.e., any code outside of the function will not have access to it.

function foo(a, b) { // a and b will both be scoped locally to the function
    var c = "Hello";
    console.log(c); // this will log "Hello" to the console when foo is invoked

foo() // "Hello" logged to console

console.log(a);  // this will cause an error since a is local to the function foo
console.log(b); // this will cause an error since b is local to the function foo
console.log(c); // this will cause an error since c is local to the function foo

var d = "World"; // this creates a global variable, which is available anywhere in your code, including functions.
                          // basically, from inside a function you can look out and but from without a function you cannot look in
                          // see below

function bar() {
  console.log(d); // bar can access variables in global scope

console.log(d); // this will log world, since d is a global variable

// also, note that within any block (i.e. curly braces - {}), other than a function,  var is scoped globally.

if (1 + 1 === 2) {
   var e = "this is global";
   console.log(e); // e is available here

console.log(e); // e is also available here

let: let is similar to var, except it creates scope within any block (i.e. anything between curly braces - {}).

if (1 + 1 === 2) {
    let f = "this is scoped to this block";
    console.log(f); // this will log the value of f

console.log(f); // this will throw an error, since f is available only within the conditional block

function baz() {
    console.log(f); // this will also throw an error when the function is invoked

baz(); // f is only available within the conditional block

const: const is similar to let in that it creates block scope; however, where let can have values reassigned (i.e. updated), const can not change, i.e., it is constant.

if (1 + 1 === 2) {
  const g = "this is local to this block and cannot be accessed elsewhere in the code, also it cannot be updated";
  console.log(g); // this will log the value of g

console.log(g); // throws an error, since g is local to the conditional block

const h = "this is global, but constant"
const h = "can't assign new value to h"; // this will throw an error, since h can only hold the value it was assigned at 
                                                                // declaration

One last thing about let vs var: a variable with a let declaration can only be declared once, whereas with var, it can be declared multiple times, but is not a good practice.

let myLetVariable = "all good";
myLetVariable = "still good"; // you can reassign to myLetVariable, but not redeclare
let myLetVariable = "no good" // this will throw an error, since myLetVariable was already declared

var myVarVariable = "all good"; // declare myVarVariable
myVarVariable = "still good"; // reassign to myVarVariable
var myVarVariable = "this will still be good"; // redeclare myVarVariable

Lastly, unless you have a good reason to use var, stick with let and const.

Hope this helps!