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# JavaScript: Flatenning array of arrays using reduce

I actually answered this exercise fairly quickly, but I just want to completely understand it.

Below you will find the problem and my solution, but I'm not clear WHY the solution worked (I just memorized how to do the method from a problem just minutes before this one).

```// Using reduce method, flatten the customerNames array of arrays. In other words, take all the names from each array inside customerNames and place them in one big array. Store the flattened array in the flattenedCustomerNames variable. You can use the array in the comments below for reference.

const customerNames = [
[ "John", "Sandy", "Tyrone", "Elizabeth", "Penny" ],
[ "Barry", "Wanda", "Jamal", "Hayden" ],
[ "Portia", "Pam", "Philip" ]
];
let flattenedCustomerNames;

// flattenedCustomerNames should be: ["John", "Sandy", "Tyrone", "Elizabeth", "Penny", "Barry", "Wanda", "Jamal", "Hayden", "Portia", "Pam", "Philip"]

flattenedCustomerNames = customerNames.reduce((arr, names) => [ ...arr, ...names], []);
```

My questions are:

1. Why does the `return` need square brackets? I'm away the output needs to be an array, hence why we inserted the empty array as the second variable. So since we have the empty array as the second variable, why are the brackets in the return necessary? Shouldn't the second variable imply that we want the answer in an array?
2. Can someone explain why `...arr, ...names` works in this solution? I'm away that `reduce` needs an accumulator and current value variable, but I'm confused on how this format outputs the correct answer of the nicely flattened array of all the desired values.

I hope these questions make sense. Thanks!!

Josh

The "spread" operator ("...") converts an array into separate arguments, so the brackets are used to re-assemble the arguments into an array. The second argument only provides the initial value of the accumulator, but the function spreads it out and re-assembles it each time.

By combining both terms, "`...arr, ...names`" gives you any accumulated names followed by the names from the current array all spread out. The the brackets make the complete set back into a larger array which becomes the new accumulator.

Make sense now?

Also, that second argument isn't necessary since the individual items are arrays.

It definitely makes more sense now. Thank you!