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Before I watched Randy write out the formula to calculate the \$start variable, I tried it myself and came up with a different approach but it seems to work fine. Any drawbacks to writing it this way?

```\$start = ((\$current_page * \$products_per_page) - \$products_per_page) + 1;
```

Instead of looking at the last one from the previous page, I've done the same calculation as you do for the \$end variable and then subtract the number of products per page, and add one.

Hi Leigh,

Your formula and Randy's formula are mathematically equivalent. Both formulas should always produce the same `\$start` value for any given `\$current_page` and `\$products_per_page` values. Which one you use would then come down to personal preference or whichever one seems more intuitive to you.

I don't know what your math level is but I can try to outline why they're equivalent using the distributive rule in mathematics. Here's a link if you're unfamiliar with it: http://www.themathpage.com/alg/distributive-rule.htm

```<?php
// Randy's formula:
\$start = ((\$current_page - 1) * \$products_per_page) + 1

// If you distribute the \$products_per_page variable through the parentheses using the distributive rule:
\$start = (\$current_page * \$products_per_page - 1 * \$products_per_page) + 1

// Simplifying:
\$start = (\$current_page * \$products_per_page - \$products_per_page) + 1

// This is the same as your formula.
?>
```

I don't see why that would not work. I would put it in the program and test it.

\$end = \$currentPage * \$productsPerPage; \$start = \$end - \$productsPerPage + 1;