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The parenthesis after a method is what indicates to the interpreter that it is a method, and also indicates that you are calling it into action.
In Ruby parenthesis after method call are redundant.
Here are two ways to define a method. Both are the same. The first is the original way, the second is the common way.
def full_name() ... end
def full_name ... end
Note the (). The parenthesis mark that it is a function (as opposed to a variable). However in Ruby, parentheses can usually be omitted. It makes the text easier to read.
These are also the same: puts name.full_name() puts name.full_name
To improve clarity, some people will include () to make it extra clear that it is a function.