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Treehouse offers a seven day free trial for new students. Get access to thousands of hours of content and join thousands of Treehouse students and alumni in the community today.  # php function quiz explanation

So I just guessed that the answer to this question was 6 and it said I was correct, however, I have no idea how to figure that out. Can someone please explain this so it makes sense?

What does the following code display? <?php

\$numbers = array(1,2,3,4);

\$total = count(\$numbers);

\$sum = 0;

\$output = "";

\$i = 0;

foreach(\$numbers as \$number) {

```\$i = \$i + 1;

if (\$i < \$total) {

\$sum = \$sum + \$number;

}
```

}

echo \$sum;

?> Hey Matthew,

So you have an array called \$numbers with 4 values - 1, 2, 3, 4. The variable \$total stores the total elements in the array - 4; \$output is never used, it's a distraction.

Once you get to the foreach loop you will go through the \$numbers array grabbing 1 in the variable \$number the first time, 2 the second, 3 the third and 4 the last time (until you have gone through the whole array).

Each time you go into the foreach loop you increase \$i value by 1. So when \$number = 1, \$i = 0, then you add 1 to it and get 1, when \$number = 2, \$i = \$i(1) + 1, which = 2. So on.

Remember, \$total is 4 from the begin. Meaning that you will only add the value in \$number to \$sum when \$i is 1, 2 or 3.

\$sum starts as 0, when \$number is 1, it is less than \$total (4) so you add 1 to \$sum and get \$sum = 1;

\$sum = 1, then \$number = 2 (continuing through the foreach loop), is 2 less than 4? Yes, \$sum = \$sum(1) + \$number(2).

\$sum = 3, then \$number = 3, is 3 less than 4? Yup, \$sum = \$sum(3) + \$number(3).

\$sum = 6, then \$number = 4, is 4 less than 4? No, nothing happenings. Then there are no more numbers in the foreach loop to go through and we end it.

Next, you echo the value of \$sum and it is right where you left it at 6!

Hope this helps,

Tom