Interacting with participants5:20 with Tomer Sharon
Study participants will make or break an Experience Sampling study.
To prepare for 0:00 an experience sampling research study, you will need to follow these steps. 0:00 1., 0:06 carefully think about the question. 0:06 It has to be something about an action that repeats itself. 0:09 A good example is, 0:13 what was the reason you recently used a piece of paper to write something down? 0:14 A bad example, what was the most annoying thing for you, 0:19 the last time you moved to a new house or apartment? 0:23 It has to be about behavior, not opinion. 0:27 A good example, what was the reason you recently updated your website? 0:30 And a bad example. 0:35 What do you think about hiring a web developer for updating your website? 0:37 No yes-no questions. 0:42 A good example. 0:44 What did you want to know recently? 0:46 A bad example. 0:48 Did you buy milk today? 0:49 No quantitative questions. 0:52 A good example. 0:54 What was the reason for the last phone call you initiated? 0:56 A bad example. 0:59 How many phone calls did you receive in the past hour? 1:01 2. 1:03 [SOUND] How long? 1:05 Carefully consider the time it'll take your study participants to 1:06 put into answering your question each time you ask. 1:10 Keep in mind you can definitely ask a lead question as well as 1:14 some follow up questions. 1:18 As a general rule of thumb, 1:20 try not to take more than one minute of your participant's time. 1:22 If you ask the question five times a day, 1:26 the required effort of participation is five minutes a day. 1:29 If you increase this time, 1:32 you increase the likelihood of getting less answers from your participants. 1:34 3. [NOISE] How many notifications? 1:38 Another thing to consider is the number of notifications you send each day. 1:40 The number should be a trade-off between the times you think the behavior you 1:46 ask about is happening. 1:49 And a number that would annoy or 1:51 overwhelm your participants to a point they choose not to respond. 1:53 For example, if you think people take notes on a piece of paper ten times a day. 1:57 Ask them about it three to five times a day. 2:02 Ten times is too much. 2:05 Also your estimation might be wrong, and if you ask ten times a day about something 2:07 that happens only five times a day your participants will feel uncomfortable. 2:12 Another example is about behaviors that occur relatively rarely. 2:17 For example, if you estimate your audience updates their website twice a week. 2:21 Don't ask about it every day. 2:26 My recommendation in this case would be to ask the question once a week for 2:28 a period of ten weeks. 2:32 If you do that with 50 people, you get 500 reasons people update their sites. 2:34 That's a good number of data points to learn from. 2:39 4. 2:42 How long should the study last? 2:43 The answer is based on a combination of the number of times you ask per day and 2:46 the number of study participants. 2:50 Think about a total number of data points you wish to gather, and 2:52 calculate backwards. 2:56 Take into account that about a third of the answers you 2:57 want will be lost due to inability to answer, duplicates, or garbage. 3:00 Here's an example. 3:06 Let's say you want 1000 valuable responses. 3:07 Considering a third will be lost, 3:11 bring that number up to 1,500 responses you wish to collect. 3:13 If you ask the question five times a day for three days, and 3:17 100 people participate in the study, you potentially get 1,500 responses. 3:21 Get the idea? 3:26 5. 3:29 Choose a medium. 3:30 You need to decide how you're going to send the question to 3:31 your study participants. 3:34 SMS, email, app, or voice messages are all good options. 3:36 The best way to go is the simplest way for 3:41 you while thinking about how data will be collected. 3:44 For example, if you sent text messages to participants and 3:48 they reply with answers over text messages as well. 3:52 How are you going to organize all of that data into one place? 3:55 If you plan on copy and pasting 1,500 text messages into a spreadsheet, think again. 3:58 You need something simpler. 4:05 I recommend using email through which you send a simple Google form. 4:07 If you're savvy with more technical stuff, which I'm not by the way, consider using 4:11 text messages and an IFTTT recipe that will drop them in a Google spreadsheet. 4:16 6. 4:23 Plan the analysis. 4:24 The main activity you will perform during the analysis phase is classifying all of 4:25 the answers to the question. 4:30 Classification is no easy task, especially if you're on your own. 4:33 If you work in a team, have everyone participate. 4:37 To prepare for a group classification you need to 4:40 predetermine the categories by which you'll classify the answers. 4:43 These categories will probably change after you start classifying answers. 4:48 Yet preparing them in advance will save you time later on. 4:52 For example, for 4:56 the note taking exercise I shared earlier, I pre-determined the following categories. 4:57 List of things to buy, things to do, 5:03 in-classroom, expressing thoughts, and sketching. 5:05 By following these steps you can ensure your experience sampling research study 5:11 will collect the right data you can confidently use later. 5:16
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