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Cheaper by the Dozen28:54 with David Hurley
Frank Gilbreth was the father of a dozen children. His story is told in the book by the same name as this talk. In this session David will look at how the principles that Frank thought about and lived by in his daily life are impactful to the user experience today. Specifically he will look at how the importance of ordering, step-by-step processes, and efficiency make for a delightful user experience. Don't get caught up in the interface and making pretty layouts which make the user do backflips to complete. And definitely don't make your users do twice what they should only do once.
[MUSIC] 0:00 Hello. 0:13 Welcome. 0:14 One minor correction, as you can immediately tell, 0:16 I don't actually live here in London, as much as I would like to. 0:19 I'm in the United States. 0:24 And I'm gonna to tell you a couple things about me real quick just so 0:28 we're all on the same page. 0:31 I like to move around a lot. 0:33 I like to interact a lot. 0:35 And I'm very enthusiastic. 0:37 Which is, I know, a little different over here than it is back in the US, 0:40 because in the US everything is awesome, and 0:45 everything is amazing, and the best I've ever seen! 0:49 Over here, 0:54 I feel like I've been given a great compliment if someone says, it's not bad. 0:55 >> [LAUGH] >> So, 1:00 I'm gonna talk to you a little bit today about something that each of us possesses. 1:04 It's the most valuable item in the world. 1:12 And I don't care where you work, where you live, or where you bank. 1:16 Each of you is incredibly wealthy. 1:23 And you're probably thinking I'm crazy because I don't have a clue what 1:27 your bank balance looks like, and you're not anything, if you're not wealthy. 1:32 But, I'm not crazy because, 1:38 it doesn't matter if you have any of the tangible goods or resources in the world. 1:40 There's only one resource you have that cannot be replaced. 1:47 You can't make more, buy more, or borrow more. 1:52 You can't reuse it. 1:57 And this resource, obviously, is your time. 1:59 Time is paramount. 2:04 Throughout all of history, there has been no discovery sought after as much as 2:06 that fountain of youth, the quest for immortality. 2:11 Humans have always looked for ways to prolong the inevitable death, and 2:15 thus the ending of their time. 2:20 Dynasties rise and fall. 2:23 Wars are raged. 2:26 Empires are established, and they crumble. 2:27 And still, always, time presses onward. 2:31 Solomon in the bible talks about ashes to ashes and dust to dust. 2:37 Time is of paramount importance. 2:43 Time drives us. 2:46 It moves us. 2:48 It consumes us. 2:50 So therefore, those things which effect time are also very important. 2:52 And when we look at how our time is spent Or 2:58 how our time is lost- >> [COUGH] 3:04 >> Or maybe how our time is wasted, 3:07 we think about how we should spend it better. 3:10 And this interest in how we spend time is often termed as efficiency. 3:15 How do we do things efficiently to make the best use of our time? 3:20 And how do we improve efficiency in our world, in our business, and in our design? 3:25 So I'd like to give you three very short stories and 3:34 three simple points, that's it. 3:39 Everybody can do three, right? 3:42 That's not that hard, we'll get through these very quickly. 3:43 And I'm hoping you'll be able to see a connection as we go through here, 3:46 maybe a common theme that weaves throughout each of these stories. 3:50 So, first story, I travel a lot. 3:54 I go to a lot of conferences. 3:59 I have the opportunity to speak to a lot of people, and I absolutely love it. 4:01 Not really the speaking part, but I love the interaction part. 4:05 I love listening, and hearing the stories of everyone that's at the events, 4:08 and I have an incredible love for airplane travel, 4:15 because it allows us to get to so many places so fast in the world. 4:19 And if I think back to the old days, when it was like three 4:25 weeks by boat to get across the ocean, I would die. 4:29 I could not do it because I don't wanna waste that much 4:35 time to get from point a to point b. 4:38 I love the fact that you can hop on an airplane, take a quick nap, and 4:39 wake up somewhere else. 4:44 It's fantastic. 4:45 But unfortunately, there's something I don't like. 4:46 That's the airport. 4:51 The airport is like the thing you have to suffer through, 4:53 because you're going to be flying on the airplane. 4:56 So how many of you have had the opportunity to travel by airplane? 4:59 Excellent. 5:03 See this is the interaction I'm talking about. 5:03 I start you off easy. 5:05 We start with a simple hand raise. 5:07 The next one's gonna be a verbal question. 5:09 And by the end, you're gonna be up here. 5:11 I'm just teasing. 5:13 You won't be on the stage. 5:14 That's just for me. 5:15 But I do like interaction, so thank you for raising your hands. 5:17 Feel free to boo, hiss, or more preferably clap. 5:19 Okay, so let's talk about this. 5:24 I love the airplanes. 5:26 I hate the airports, and they kinda have to go hand in hand. 5:29 So if I could, I just skipped that part and just go straight to the flying. 5:34 But because I travel so much, my odds of misfortune are higher than most. 5:38 And what that means is I have a greater chance of missing that connection, 5:42 losing my luggage, or experiencing that extra bit of loving from the security 5:46 guard because you've been "selected" for a randomized security screening. 5:50 Yeah. 5:54 Usually I get dinner before we go to that stage. 5:55 See, I got to work you guys, you've got to get into this. 5:58 It's okay to laugh, okay, it's plenty okay to laugh and have a good time. 6:02 So one of the worst feelings I think I've experience 6:08 is running though the airport terminal to make that next flight. 6:12 That's just a miserable feeling and 6:18 I don't know if any of you have had that experience but 6:19 it's there just nothing quite like it. 6:21 On one trip, I was passing through Washington D.C. 6:24 to return over here to Europe, and I remember this like it just happened. 6:26 I think I still have nightmares about this one. 6:31 Because the flight across the Atlantic, from the particular terminal that I was 6:35 leaving from, only happens once a day, okay. 6:38 I've got one shot to get on that plane and get over here to Europe. 6:41 And if I don't make it, I have to wait an entire 24 hours before the next one. 6:46 Okay, so I'd get the first plane from Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, 6:51 and it's a quick little flight to Washington D.C. 6:55 Well my flight to Washington D.C. was slightly delayed. 6:58 Like maybe 15 minutes. 7:02 Doesn't sound too bad, unless you consider the fact that there's only 30 minutes for 7:04 me to make that connection anyways. 7:08 So it's a very tight connection, and 7:10 now I've just taken half of that in a delay before I've even gotten there. 7:11 So I get there, and I think, okay, 15 minutes. 7:16 It's close to the same terminal, well, I'll be okay. 7:19 I can make this. 7:21 And so I start making my way there, briskly walking. 7:22 Okay, but still walking. 7:28 I still have my dignity and my self respect as I walk through there. 7:29 Okay, I'm not at that scramble mode just yet. 7:32 But as I'm making my way to the terminal, I realize, 7:35 uh-oh, there is something up in front me that's gonna slow me down. 7:38 Because, when I landed and I grabbed my bags and I began that walk, 7:43 I ran into a queue. 7:47 See, I'm using the Queen's English. 7:51 You like that? 7:53 I'd say it was a line. 7:54 I ran into a line, a very long line. 7:56 It was a security checkpoint. 7:59 Okay, so now let's talk about this efficiency thing again. 8:01 Efficiency for me, might mean something different than to the security 8:07 agencies that are manning those terminals. 8:12 Because if I look at it, here I was stuck in another security checkpoint. 8:15 Okay. 8:22 I have gone through Raleigh-Durham security. 8:25 I went through them to a secure airplane. 8:28 I flew through the air, never leaving the plane 8:31 to a secure gate at Washington-Dallas. 8:35 I walked through a secure terminal to another security checkpoint. 8:39 Does anyone here understand what I'm trying to say? 8:45 That we secure, secure, secure. 8:48 We better check you. 8:50 You might not be secure. 8:51 >> [LAUGH] >> I think that's inefficient. 8:53 I understand security. 8:56 I'm all about extra security. 8:57 In fact, if we looked at efficiency, maybe on this side of the pond, 8:59 how many of you had the opportunity to fly through terminal 5? 9:03 The new one at LHR, at London Heathrow? 9:07 Okay. 9:10 I have a little bit of an issue with it, okay. 9:11 Because after you wait forever to get to the security where you put your 9:14 stuff in and it goes through the cart, there's three spots there. 9:19 Okay, and you come up and you take whichever, there's three spots, 9:23 is available. 9:27 But rather than them all moving through and 9:29 then three more people coming in, it's randomized. 9:32 So whoever gets their stuff pushed through first, can then skip and 9:36 go right on through security. 9:39 Now, you may get that first spot of the three, and you put all your stuff in, but 9:41 if these two people were there, just a split second before you, and 9:45 they moved through, now you're stuck. 9:48 Okay, so now all of a sudden it's incredibly inefficient because it's not 9:50 done in order. 9:53 It's done randomly, and you get stuck waiting for your turn. 9:54 Anyway, inefficient process. 9:58 So I'm not gonna go anymore into this screening. 10:00 If you have other questions about it, 10:03 happy to talk more about the efficiencies of airports later. 10:05 I can wax eloquent on it for hours. 10:08 I won't keep you in suspense any longer. 10:11 I passed through security. 10:12 I rushed to my gate. 10:14 At this point, I'm no longer briskly walking. 10:16 I'm in a full on jog. 10:18 I'm the idiot that you see running down the terminal, and you're like, 10:21 what is wrong with that guy? 10:24 That was me. 10:26 I was trying to catch my flight. 10:27 Okay, so I'm dodging other travelers, as I make my way. 10:29 I slide into my seat on the airplane, just as they're closing the gate. 10:32 I'm hot. 10:36 I'm sweaty. I'm flushed. 10:37 Oh my god, I made it. 10:38 Good, it's all good. 10:40 And when I did that, I happened to look over at the guy next to me in the seat. 10:42 And I didn't think of him anything immediately but 10:49 he's sitting there with a cooler on his lap. 10:51 I don't think a thing about it but 10:53 I remembered it as I was sitting there, I'd seen him as I was rushing through. 10:54 He was, actually, rushing with me. 10:59 And he was, actually, going through the same security, we were both, apparently, 11:01 running to the same plane, just maybe at slightly different paces. 11:04 You know how you catch someone out of the corner of your eye. 11:07 He was sitting next to me on the plane now and he was holding this cooler in his lap. 11:09 Well, as I'm sitting there, I kind of glance over, and 11:14 that cooler that he has on his lap has got medical tape all over it. 11:18 And stickers all over it. 11:23 One of the stickers says something. 11:25 It says, human organ inside. 11:27 So, I think a realization dawns on me, and it might be dawning on you, too. 11:32 I'm like, okay, so, while it might be an inconvenience for 11:35 me to miss that next flight due to an inefficiency in security or 11:40 double security screening, it's much, much more to my seatmate. 11:45 Because for him, it's a very real matter of life and death. 11:52 And efficiencies can absolutely affect life and death. 11:58 So, an inefficient process, a poorly executed strategy, excessive 12:04 steps in the security screening could be the difference between life an death. 12:08 Efficiency is important. 12:12 So, here's my first point. 12:15 I told you there's only three, so 12:18 I'm gonna expect you to remember them cuz I make them easy. 12:19 Every second counts. 12:21 Every second. 12:25 Second story. 12:28 >> [COUGH]. 12:30 >> It's a compelling one. 12:33 2,208,729,600, that's how many seconds there 12:35 are when you turn 70. 12:42 That's how much time you have and a second seems so 12:46 fast and so inconsequential, but let's look at some facts. 12:51 Now, I know you all kind of groan. 12:57 You're like, oh, facts. 12:58 I'm gonna pull out the stats charts now, and 13:00 we're gonna spend some time going through them. 13:02 I'll try to talk a lot more boring, and 13:03 I'll try to make sure that everyone feels like they can fall asleep. 13:06 No, these are actually interesting facts. 13:09 For example, in a second, you blink seven times. 13:11 In one second, a fast human can run 39 feet or 12 meters. 13:17 In a second, a commercial airline jet, 13:24 see I'm bringing back the airline, can travel 800 feet. 13:28 So, all of those are related to speed. 13:34 And that second, but seconds can relate to other things as well. 13:37 In one second, four babies are born and two people die. 13:40 And although, we often think that a second is such a small and 13:44 insignificant unit of time that not much can happen in a second. 13:48 Lives are changed and the world is moved. 13:52 Quite literally, because the world actually moves 18 1/2 miles every second. 13:56 So, if we believe that every second is important, 14:01 then we should make the most of each. 14:04 And we should find the most efficient way to do things to save those seconds. 14:07 So, this is Frank Gilbreth. 14:15 His wife Lillian, and I think this is 11 of their 12 children. 14:18 Now, I got the title of this talk from a book written 14:23 by Frank Suns, entitled Cheaper By The Dozen, and 14:28 Frank was obsessed with the idea of saving steps, saving motion, and saving time. 14:33 And by reducing the motions required to perform tasks, 14:41 he could complete work faster and more efficiently. 14:43 So, the book title comes from the fact that there are 12 kids in his family and 14:48 it was often they were to receive attention when they were out in public 14:52 because man, that is a huge family. 14:54 Side note, real quick. 14:58 I love kids. 15:00 I love having lots of kids around, right now we have three. 15:02 My lovely wife who's so supportive that I can go and travel the world and 15:07 have lots of fun at conferences like this, and she stays home and 15:11 keeps up with three little kids. 15:15 And then, I come home and say, hey, let's have more. 15:16 So, she's very supportive, and we'll probably end up with a larger family. 15:19 She just doesn't know it yet. 15:24 >> [LAUGH] >> Anyway, when they were out in public, 15:25 they have 12 kids. 15:29 It would often be a joke that people would ask them. 15:31 Wow, that's a lot, that's a big family. 15:33 And he would respond with, well, I think I've heard they're cheaper by the dozen. 15:35 So, it was just a quick little play on the words and how many kids that he had. 15:40 So, that's where the title of the talk comes from and Frank Gilberth, really, 15:43 to me, is an inspiration because of the studies that he's done. 15:47 But let me go on with maybe one of the stories from his life and 15:51 some of the stuff that he's done, because he studied motion, 15:55 he studied efficiencies, and he studied how to improve processes. 15:59 Sometimes, he did it in unique ways, and sometimes in quite obvious ways, but 16:03 always in order to improve lives. 16:07 Frank would time everything. 16:13 He would video a process. 16:16 This was old school video back then. 16:18 So, they're cranking to actually turn the film and record it. 16:19 And they would analyze that video, and 16:23 he would time it to how long it takes to complete a process. 16:25 And during World War I, Frank turns attention to the medical field. 16:30 And the surgical procedures following that accompanied with injured soldiers. 16:36 He saw ways he could improve that process and save lives. 16:40 And so, he studied hours and 16:43 hours of surgical procedures, and he's responsible for some of the same time 16:46 saving tricks that are used even today in hospitals around the world. 16:51 Every time a surgeon turns to a nurse and says, hand me whatever, 16:56 a scalpel, hand me this, hand me that. 17:01 That was because Frank Gilberth saw a process where the surgeon was stopping 17:03 what he was doing to reach and rummage, and look for the right instrument, and 17:08 he saw a way he could improve that, by having a nurse stand there and 17:13 hand them the instrument. 17:18 And it improved time, it improved efficiency. 17:19 But he didn't just improve in the operating room, 17:22 he actually worked hard with the post-op patients and 17:26 those veterans that were coming home from war and were unable to do normal tasks. 17:30 And he worked with ways and practices and methods for 17:35 them to be able to be rehabilitated and continue their daily lives. 17:39 So, that's powerful stuff. 17:43 Frank Gilbreth and his wife Lillian most assuredly 17:46 believe in the power of a second and the importance of efficiency. 17:49 They saw first hand how being efficient could improve or even save a life. 17:54 Take away point number two, saving time improves lives. 18:04 >> [COUGH]. 18:08 >> These are easy. 18:11 And you're thinking, I know what you're thinking. 18:12 You're thinking that was two, so three, he's almost done, this is fast, 18:13 this is great. 18:18 I'm not even gonna fall asleep. 18:19 So, I know what you're thinking is yeah, it's actually very interesting but 18:21 how does this really affect me or relate to me in my work as a designer, developer, 18:24 business owner, user interface developer, or 18:29 user experience expert, and everybody else? 18:32 How does this actually affect us? 18:35 Well, we live in a world where seconds matter. 18:37 Even milliseconds matter. 18:40 Cuz I will actually ask for a show of hands, how many of you have been to 18:42 a website and waited and thought, well that took entirely too long, back button. 18:45 Okay, so milliseconds matter, because I guarantee you, 18:51 most of those are probably millisecond delays. 18:54 But we're used to it like instant, and if it's not instant, 18:56 well they're not getting my business. 18:59 So, if a one-second delay in a page response 19:01 can result in 7% reduction in conversions. 19:06 Now, if we take a more specific example, and 19:12 we say that it's an e-commerce website, and it's making $100,000 every day. 19:15 A one-second delay on a page load can cost $2.5 19:21 million in sales over the course of the year. 19:26 That suddenly sounds very significant. 19:32 >> [COUGH] >> And that actually does affect us, 19:34 because our job is to make sure that we're efficient not only in design but 19:37 in the code and in the way it loads and the services we use. 19:43 And that's just the page load speed. 19:46 Seconds matter in other places too cuz if your design is confusing or 19:49 your process flow is difficult to follow, 19:54 you exponentially decrease your user engagement. 19:57 So, one second's bad. 20:00 Two seconds is far worse. 20:02 It only takes 2.6 seconds for a user to look at your webpage and 20:04 determine where they should focus. 20:08 Be sure that you focus your users and provide a very clear path for 20:12 them to follow. 20:15 Your goal should be to keep engagement high and initial commitment low. 20:17 You want to make it easy. 20:26 Easy in multiple senses of the word. 20:28 Efficiency in your processes efficiency in the flow that you create for 20:31 your users adds to that effect. 20:36 So employing time saving techniques, 20:40 motion saving clicks are all important aspects of this process. 20:41 You may not feel that you're necessarily saving lives because you reduced 20:46 the number of clicks it took on your website, but 20:50 you are in fact improving them. 20:53 Because think of all those times that you've been frustrated 20:57 because you couldn't find the right part of the website or 20:59 the right button to click or the right steps to take to complete the action. 21:02 And how does that make you feel? 21:05 [SOUND] So, if you can relieve that tension, that pressure, 21:07 that stress, you're improving a life, do you remember how exciting and 21:11 how refreshing it felt when you went to a website that had a very clear user flow. 21:16 It was like, click here, fill out these three little input boxes, 21:22 click this button. 21:26 Congratulations, you did it! 21:27 Now, it sounds juvenile, but at the same time, admit it, 21:29 there's a little part of you that says, huh. 21:33 I'm pretty good. 21:35 I did that. 21:35 Thank you for that laugh. 21:39 We're getting better. 21:40 By the end of the talk, I'm gonna have everyone laughing, I guarantee it. 21:41 I'm running out of time, I better go quicker. 21:45 So you may not see that the work you're doing is quite as important as 21:48 Frank Gilberth, and some of the stuff that he did that was saving lives. 21:52 But I guarantee you but your work is valuable and it's important. 21:55 And since it is, you should take your time and do your best, and 22:00 be thoughtful about it. 22:03 So, third story. 22:04 We're almost done. 22:08 You guys are almost out of here. 22:09 Sometimes it's obvious, the ways that you can be more efficient. 22:11 And other times it's not quite as obvious. 22:13 And it takes a bit of creative thinking, 22:15 maybe, to find ways to save those valuable seconds or to improve that process. 22:17 This is the fun part of our work, right? 22:22 We get to use our imaginations, we get to try things. 22:25 Sometimes they fail miserably but often, we're able to make a difference. 22:28 And this leads me to the last story I'm gonna share with you today. 22:33 Anybody know who these guys are? 22:38 So, this is the Wright Brothers. 22:39 Okay? 22:46 Anybody know who that is now? 22:47 Raise your hand if you know who they are? 22:48 Okay? 22:50 Now my guess is you're probably familiar with them because, well first of all, 22:51 they're originally from where I live currently, which is North Carolina, 22:55 United States. 22:58 So, yay, but that's probably not why you know them. 22:59 But these two brothers, Orville and Wilbur were known because they 23:02 are frequently referred to as the first men to fly an airplane. 23:06 That's a big deal. 23:10 For North Carolina, 23:11 that's our claim to fame, first to fly, yay, we did something important. 23:12 But there's actually some discrepancies over that, and 23:16 there's actually some debate about that, about the exact timing, and 23:19 the result is a more detailed attribution. 23:24 It would be that they are the first men to experience powered controlled 23:26 fixed wing heavier than air human flight. 23:31 That's nowhere near as easy to put on a license plate. 23:35 First in flight fits right? 23:37 But that long description it's a little bit too long. 23:39 But there's something in that description that's really important. 23:42 Cause you see the Wright brothers although they were more well known 23:45 they were not the first to think of this concept. 23:48 Decades earlier, even centuries before, some of other idea generators and 23:51 thinkers were coming up with what we could do to fly like the birds do. 23:57 And one of those thinkers, his name was Sir George Kaley. 24:02 See I'm bringing this back around because he is actually from, 24:07 does anybody know him, by the way? 24:11 Oh, okay. 24:14 He's from Yorkshire. 24:15 Was, a long long time ago. 24:17 1799, he wrote, he theorized and 24:19 wrote a paper, That human flight should be possible. 24:21 But that, not only should it be possible, but 24:26 he proposed ideas of aerodynamic forces and the fixed wing concept. 24:28 And the use of separate systems for propulsion and for steering and control. 24:33 Sounds familiar, right? 24:37 I mean, that's, kind of, like what the Wright brothers did. 24:38 So, before they ever did it, Sir George thought it up, and he wrote about it. 24:40 And there's plenty of video footage archived. 24:46 If you're in the mood for a good laugh. 24:49 It's actually quite humorous to look at early flying attempts. 24:51 And if we have time, I might have a little bit, I'll let you watch just a little bit. 24:57 Cause I mean I don't know about you guys, but stuff like this just gives me a kick. 25:00 It's like man, we sure were stupid. 25:03 We're so much smarter now. 25:07 So there's a common theme running through all of these examples. 25:12 And you know what I'll be bold I'll do this. 25:15 Can anyone tell me what the common theme is through all of these little 25:17 video clips here? 25:20 >> Wings. 25:21 >> Say that what? 25:22 >> Wings. >> Wings. 25:25 And what kind of wings do we got? 25:26 We have moving wings. 25:27 For some reason we thought, 25:28 if we're gonna be like birds we gotta flap our wings like birds. 25:31 Nowadays we don't think too much of it. 25:36 And now we think, you know what, you know, a fixed wing, 25:37 obviously that's not a big deal, that's what planes have. 25:40 But back then that was radical thinking. 25:44 That was thinking differently. 25:48 That was actually seeing the world differently 25:49 than what everyone else was doing. 25:52 Clearly and failing quite miserably at. 25:54 So Sir George may not be widely recognized or as widely known 25:58 as the Wright Brothers or others in history but, he did something important. 26:04 He thought differently. 26:10 And that's the important thing that I want you to take away from this last story. 26:12 Sorry to spoil the fun. 26:18 Third point, see the world differently. 26:21 Don't accept the status quo, just because that's the status quo. 26:26 That's just what's been done in the past. 26:30 Whatever your role is, whatever your occupation is, you'll be better if you 26:33 allow yourself to think outside the box, to view the world from a different point. 26:39 If you entertain ideas and 26:47 you encourage your own personal growth, you'll be better. 26:48 When you see the world differently, you solve problems in new ways. 26:53 You find ways to be more efficient and 26:57 save that valuable time, don't get stuck in ruts. 26:59 Don't follow blindly along the paths of those who have gone before 27:05 without testing and proving it to be the best route. 27:09 Be willing, be bold, be different. 27:12 So I hope these three stories have been motivational, 27:19 encouraging and give you some thought that you know what every second counts and 27:23 saving time can improve lives. 27:28 And it's important to see the world differently,an 27:31 example of seeing the world differently might be to 27:34 harken back to Frank Gilberth we talked about in our second story. 27:37 He once timed how long it took him to button his shirt. 27:41 And then he timed how long it took him to button his shirt 27:46 from the bottom to the top as opposed to top down. 27:49 And from then on he always buttoned his shirt from the bottom to the top 27:53 because he could save four seconds. 27:57 Seven seconds from top to bottom. 28:01 Three seconds from bottom to top. 28:03 Every time now I will button my shirt from bottom to top. 28:04 Now I would say that's seeing the world a little differently and even though I know 28:07 that's gonna save me four second I just cannot button from the bottom to the top. 28:11 It just doesn't work. 28:14 So three points, three stories, I hope they stick with you, 28:16 I hope you remember them. 28:20 If you start your day with that simply thought you will accomplish great things. 28:21 You will make the most of your time, you will improve the lives of others and 28:25 you will create incredible things. 28:29 So I'll end by saying thank you, thank you so 28:33 very much for giving to me your time. 28:38 >> [APPLAUSE] 28:41 >> [MUSIC] 28:48
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